Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Application of a standardized precipitation index for mapping drought severity in an arid climate region, southeastern Iran

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Arabian Journal of Geosciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Drought is a recurring climate phenomenon causing many environmental and agricultural problems among others. To limit drought consequences, it is essential to monitor drought and implement efficient control measures. The aim of this study is to investigate the application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for the 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, 24-, and 48-month timescales for mapping the drought severity as an effective water management tool in an arid climate region. Calculations of the SPI were performed using historic records of monthly precipitation data of 50 stations over the Sistan and Baluchistan province, southeast of Iran. The majority of the SPI variants showed a moderate to strong spatial correlation with a spherical structure. In 1997, having a higher amount of rainfall, all areas across the province were in a wet or normal condition. In the years with a low rainfall amount (e.g., 2012), the western and southeastern parts of the province have been affected by different degrees of drought especially at the moderate timescales 6 and 12 months. The generated SPI maps identified the most vulnerable regions to drought over the province where government investments should be prioritized for an improved resiliency of the water management infrastructures and for designing a strategic crop management plan with less irrigation water demands.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aba A, Al-Dousari AM, Ismaeel A (2016) Depositional characteristics of 7 Be and 210 Pb in Kuwaiti dust. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 307(1):15–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-015-4129-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aba A, Al-Dousari AM, Ismaeel A (2018) Atmospheric deposition fluxes of 137Cs associated with dust fallout in the northeastern Arabian Gulf. J Environ Radioact 192:565–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.05.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Afrasiab P, Delbari M (2013) Assessing the risk of soil vulnerability to wind erosion through conditional simulation of soil water content in Sistan plain, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 70(6):2895–2905

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Al-Dousari AM (2013) Geomorphological characteristics of the Um-Rimam depression in northern Kuwait. Kuwait J Sci 40(1):165–178

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed M, Al-Dousari N, Al-Dousari A (2016) The role of dominant perennial native plant species in controlling the mobile sand encroachment and fallen dust problem in Kuwait. Arab J Geosci 9(2):134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2216-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akhtari R, Morid S, Mahdian MH, Smakhtin V (2009) Assessment of areal interpolation methods for spatial analysis of SPI and EDI drought indices. Int J Climatol 29:135–145

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Dousari AM (2005) Causes and indicators of land degradation in the north-western part of Kuwait. Arab Gulf J Sci Res (1989) 23(2):69–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Dousari AM, Aba A, Al-Awadhi S, Ahmed M, Al-Dousari N (2016) Temporal and spatial assessment of pollen, radionuclides, minerals and trace elements in deposited dust within Kuwait. Arab J Geosci 9(2):95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2182-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Dousari A, Doronzo D, Ahmed M (2017) Types, indications and impact evaluation of sand and dust storms trajectories in the Arabian Gulf. Sustainability 9(9):1526

  • Al-Dousari AM, Ibrahim MI, Al-Dousari N, Ahmed M, Al-Awadhi S (2018) Pollen in aeolian dust with relation to allergy and asthma in Kuwait. Aerobiologia 34(3):325–336

  • Al-Dousari A, Al-Nassar W, Al-Hemoud A, Alsaleh A, Ramadan A, Al-Dousari N, Ahmed M (2019a) Solar and wind energy: challenges and solutions in desert regions. Energy 176:184–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.03.180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Dousari AM, Ahmed M, Al-Dousari N, Al-Awadhi S (2019b) Environmental and economic importance of native plants and green belts in controlling mobile sand and dust hazards. Int J Environ Sci Technol 16(5):2415–2426. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-018-1879-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Enezi E, Al-Dousari A, Al-Shammari F (2014) Modeling adsorption of inorganic phosphorus on dust fallout in Kuwait bay. J Eng Res 2(2):1–14. https://doi.org/10.7603/s40632-014-0001-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Hemoud A, Al-Dousari A, Al-Shatti A, Al-Khayat A, Behbehani W, Malak M (2018) Health impact assessment associated with exposure to PM10 and dust storms in Kuwait. Atmosphere 9(1):6. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9010006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alizadeh-Choobari O, Zawar-Reza P, Sturman A (2014) The “wind of 120 days” and dust storm activity over the Sistan Basin. Atmos Res 143:328–341

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Sudairawi M, Misak R, Kwarteng A, Al-Awadhi JM, Al-Dousari A, Gharib I (1999) Study of sand control at Kuwait oil company (KOC) operational areas of southeast, west and north Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Report No. KISR5550, Kuwait

  • Bayat B, Nasseri M, Zahraie B (2015) Identification of long-term annual pattern of meteorological drought based on spatiotemporal methods: evaluation of different geostatistical approaches. Nat Hazards 76:515–541

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonaccorso B, Bordi I, Cancelliere A, Rossi G, Sutera A (2003) Spatial variability of drought: an analysis of the SPI in Sicily. Water Resour Manag 17(4):273–296

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryan K, Ward S, Barr S, Butler D (2019) Coping with drought: perceptions, intentions and decision-stages of South West England households. Water Resour Manag 33(3):1185–1202

    Google Scholar 

  • Burrough PA (2001) GIS and geostatistics: essential partners for spatial analysis. Environ Ecol Stat 8:361–377

    Google Scholar 

  • Bussay A, Szinell C, Szentimery T (1999) Investigation and measurements of droughts in Hungary. Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest, Hungary

    Google Scholar 

  • Buttafuoco G, Caloiero T (2014) Drought events at different timescales in southern Italy (Calabria). J Maps 10:529–537

    Google Scholar 

  • Buttafuoco G, Caloiero T, Coscarelli R (2015) Analyses of drought events in Calabria (southern Italy) using standardized precipitation index. Water Resour Manag 29:557–573

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook BI, Ault TR, Smerdon JE (2015) Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains. Sci Adv 1(1):e1400082

  • Dai A (2011) Drought under global warming: a review. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Chang 2:45–65

    Google Scholar 

  • Deutsch CV, Journel AG (1998) GSLIB: Geostatistical software library and user’s guide, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, NewYork

    Google Scholar 

  • Dracup JA, Lee KS, Paulson EGR (1980) On the definition of droughts. Water Resour Res 16:297–302

    Google Scholar 

  • Edwards DC (1997) Characteristics of 20th century drought in the United States at multiple time scales (No. AFIT-97-051). AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH

  • ESRI (2011) ArcGIS desktop: version 10.3. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redland

    Google Scholar 

  • Gómez CMG, Blanco CDP (2012) Do drought management plans reduce drought risk? A risk assessment model for a Mediterranean river basin. Ecol Econ 76:42–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Govaerts Y, Lattanzio A (2008) Estimation of surface albedo increase during the eighties Sahel drought from Meteosat observations. Glob Planet Chang 64(3–4):139–145

    Google Scholar 

  • Guttman NB (1998) Comparing the palmer drought index and the standardized precipitation index 1. J Amer Water Resour Assoc 34(1):113–121

  • Hayes MJ, Svoboda MD, Wilhite DA, Vanyarkho OV (1999) Monitoring the 1996 drought using the standardized precipitation index. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80:429–438

    Google Scholar 

  • Heinrich G, Gobiet A (2012) The future of dry and wet spells in Europe: a comprehensive study based on the ENSEMBLES regional climate models. Int J Climatol 32:1951–1970 http://drought.unl.edu/MonitoringTools/DownloadableSPIProgram.aspx

    Google Scholar 

  • Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM (1989) An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Jain SK, Keshri R, Goswami A, Sarkar A (2010) Application of meteorological and vegetation indices for evaluation of drought impact: a case study for Rajasthan, India. Nat Hazards 54:643–656

    Google Scholar 

  • Jemai S, Kallel A, Abida H (2018) Drought distribution using the standardized precipitation index: case of Gabes Basin, South Tunisia. Arab J Geosci 11:737–710. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-018-4053-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ji L, Peters AJ (2003) Assessing vegetation response to drought in the northern Great Plains using vegetation and drought indices. Remote Sens Environ 87:85–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnston K, Ver Hoef JM, Krivoruchko K, Lucas N (2001) Using ArcGIS geostatistical analyst (Vol. 380). Esri, Redlands

    Google Scholar 

  • Kao SC, Govindaraju RS (2010) A copula-based joint deficit index for droughts. J Hydrol 380:121–134

    Google Scholar 

  • Łabędzki L (2007) Estimation of local drought frequency in Central Poland using the standardized precipitation index SPI. Irrig Drain 56:67–77

    Google Scholar 

  • Lana X, Serra C, Burgueño A (2001) Patterns of monthly rainfall shortage and excess in terms of the standardized precipitation index for Catalonia (NE Spain). Int J Climatol 21:1669–1691

    Google Scholar 

  • Lehner B, Henrichs T, Döll P, Alcamo J (2001) EuroWasser: Model-based assessment of European water resources and hydrology in the face of global change, Kassel World Water Series 5. Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany

  • Liu L, Hong Y, Looper J, Riley R, Yong B, Zhang Z, Shafer M (2013) Climatological drought analyses and projection using SPI and PDSI: case study of the Arkansas Red River Basin. J Hydrol Eng 18:809–816

    Google Scholar 

  • Livada I, Assimakopoulos VD (2007) Spatial and temporal analysis of drought in Greece using the standardized precipitation index (SPI). Theor Appl Climatol 89:143–153

    Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd-Hughes B (2002) The long range predictability of European drought. Ph.D. dissertation. University College London

  • Lloyd-Hughes B, Saunders MA (2002) A drought climatology for Europe. Int J Climatol 22:1571–1592

    Google Scholar 

  • Logan KE, Brunsell NA, Jones AR, Feddeme JJ (2010) Assessing spatiotemporal variability of drought in the US central plains. J Arid Environ 74:247–255

    Google Scholar 

  • López Moreno JI, Vicente Serrano SM, Beguería S, García Ruiz JM, Portela MM, Almeida AB (2009) Dam effects on droughts magnitude and duration in a transboundary basin: The Lower River Tagus, Spain and Portugal. Water Resour Res 45(2):W02405. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008WR007198

  • Loukas A, Vasiliades L (2004) Probabilistic analysis of drought spatiotemporal characteristics in Thessaly region, Greece. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 4:719–731

    Google Scholar 

  • Loukas A, Vasiliades L, Tzabiras J (2008) Climate change effects on drought severity. Adv Geosci 17:23–29

    Google Scholar 

  • McKee TB, Doeskin NJ, Kleist J (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. In Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Applied Climatology, 17–22 January, Anaheim, CA. American Meteorological Society: Boston MA 179–184

  • Miri A, Ahmadi H, Ghanbari A, Moghaddamnia A (2007) Dust storms impacts on air pollution and public health under hot and dry climate. Int J Energy Environ 2:101–105

    Google Scholar 

  • Mishra AK, Singh VP (2009) Analysis of drought severity-area-frequency curves using a general circulation model and scenario uncertainty. J Geophys Res Atmos 114(D6)

  • Mishra AK, Singh VP (2010) A review of drought concepts. J Hydrol 391:202–216

    Google Scholar 

  • Moreira E, Russo A, Trigo RM (2018) Monthly prediction of drought classes using log-linear models under the influence of NAO for early-warning of drought and water management. Water 10:65

    Google Scholar 

  • Morid S, Smakhtin V, Moghaddasi M (2006) Comparison of seven meteorological indices for drought monitoring in Iran. Int J Climatol 26:971–985

    Google Scholar 

  • Nyakudya IW, Stroosnijder L (2011) Water management options based on rainfall analysis for rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) production in Rushinga district, Zimbabwe. Agric Water Manag 98:1649–1659

    Google Scholar 

  • Robertson GP (2000) Geostatistics for environmental sciences: GS+ user’s guide, Version 5. Gamma Design Software, MI. 200

  • Seiler RA, Hayes M, Bressan L (2002) Using the standardized precipitation index for flood risk monitoring. Int J Climatol 22:1365–1376

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharifikia M (2013) Environmental challenges and drought hazard assessment of Hamoun Desert Lake in Sistan region, Iran, based on the time series of satellite imagery. Nat Hazards 65:201–217

    Google Scholar 

  • Sheffield J, Wood EF (2011) Drought: past problems and future scenarios. Earthscan, London, pp 210

  • Shiau JT (2006) Fitting drought duration and severity with two-dimensional copulas. Water Resour Manag 20:795–815

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh VP, Xu CY (1997) Evaluation and generalization of 13 mass transfer equations for determining free water evaporation. Hydrol Process 11(3):311–323

  • Son NT, Chen CF, Chen CR, Chang LY, Minh VQ (2012) Monitoring agricultural drought in the Lower Mekong Basin using MODIS NDVI and land surface temperature data. Int J Appl Earth Obs 1(18):417–427

  • Sönmez FK, Koemuescue AU, Erkan A, Turgu E (2005) An analysis of spatial and temporal dimension of drought vulnerability in Turkey using the standardized precipitation index. Nat Hazards 35(2):243–264

    Google Scholar 

  • Svoboda M, Hayes M, Wood D (2012) Standardized precipitation index user guide. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  • Szalai S, Szinell CS (2000) Comparison of two drought indices for drought monitoring in Hungary—a case study. Drought and drought mitigation in Europe. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 161–166

    Google Scholar 

  • Tallaksen LM, Van Lanen HAJ (Eds) (2004) Hydrological drought—processes and estimation methods for streamflow and groundwater. Dev Water Sci 48:579. Elsevier, Amsterdam

  • Ten Broek J, Teuling AJ, Van Loon AF (2014) Comparison of drought indices for the province of Gelderland, the Netherlands. DROUGHT-R&SPI Technical Report 16, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands

  • Udmale PD, Ichikawa Y, Kiem SA, Panda NS (2014) Drought impacts and adaptation strategies for agriculture and rural livelihood in the Maharashtra State of India. Open Agr J 8(1):41–47

  • Vasiliades L, Loukas A (2009) Hydrological response to meteorological drought using the Palmer drought indices in Thessaly, Greece. Desalination 237:3–21

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang W, Ertsen MW, Svoboda MD, Hafeez M (2016) Propagation of drought: from meteorological drought to agricultural and hydrological drought. Adv in Meteorol. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6547209

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Wen L, Rogers K, Ling J, Saintilan N (2011) The impacts of river regulation and water diversion on the hydrological drought characteristics in the lower Murrumbidgee River, Australia. J Hydrol 405:382–391

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilhite DA (2000) Drought as a natural hazard: concepts and definitions. Drought Global Assess 1:3–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Willhite DA, Glantze MH (1985) Understanding the drought phenomenon: the rule of definition. Water Int 10:111–120

    Google Scholar 

  • World Meteorological Organization (2012) Standardized precipitation index user guide, (WMO-No. 1090). World Meteorological Organization, Geneva

  • Wu H, Haye MJ, Weis A, Hu Q (2001) An evaluation of the standardized precipitation index, the China-Z index and the statistical Z-score. Int J Climatol 21:745–758

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang W (2010) Drought analysis under climate change by application of drought indices and copulas. MSc thesis, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, pp 1–84

  • Zargar A, Sadiq R, Naser B, Khan FI (2011) A review of drought indices. Environ Rev 19:333–349

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Masoomeh Delbari.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Zhihua Zhang

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Moghbeli, A., Delbari, M. & Amiri, M. Application of a standardized precipitation index for mapping drought severity in an arid climate region, southeastern Iran. Arab J Geosci 13, 221 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-5201-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-5201-7

Keywords

Navigation