Skip to main content

First occurrence of pigeonite in the Cameroon Volcanic Line

Abstract

Low-Ca clinopyroxene crystal of pigeonite composition has been discovered in the Tchabal Mbabo volcano massif of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), a long active N30° chain of volcanic centres and ring complexes in Central Africa. The Tchabal Mbabo is a huge Eocene-Oligocene volcano, at the junction with Adamawa Plateau (AP), made of lava flows and domes, which display a rather complete alkaline series from basanite and basalt to peralkaline trachyte and rhyolite. Pigeonite phase was found, as small crystals (30–50 μm) included in K-feldspar, which is in turn included in a biotite, in the Gouri peralkaline trachytic dome-flow. We describe in this paper for the first time the occurrence of modal pigeonite phase in the CVL. Occurrence of pigeonite phase in peralkaline trachyte does not evidence tholeiitic/transitional affinities but is considered resulting from silica saturation during differentiation of the alkaline series. Low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.704277) and high εNdi (+ 1.25) of trachyte, close to OIB rather than FOZO reservoir, preclude any important crustal contamination.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  • Andújar J, Scaillet B, Pichavant M, Druitt T (2015) Differentiation conditions of a basaltic magma from Santorini, and its bearing on the production of andesite in arc settings. J Petrol 56(4):765–794

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bardintzeff JM, Leyrit H, Guillou H, Guille G, Bonin B, Giret A, Brousse R (1994) Transition between tholeiitic and alkali basalts: petrographical and geochemical evidence from Fangataufa, Pacific Ocean, and Kerguelen, Indian Ocean. Geochem J 28(6):489–515

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carignan J, Hild P, Mévelle G, Morel J, Yeghicheyan D (2001) Routine analyses of trace elements in geological samples using flow injection and low pressure on-line liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS: a study of geochemical reference materials BR, DR-N, UB-N, AN-G and GH. Geostand Newslett 25:187–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carmichael, I.S.E, Turner, F.J., Verhoogen, J., 1974. Igneous petrology, McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christensen PR et al (2004) Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES experiment on the Opportunity Rover. Science 306:1730–1733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deer WA, Howie RA, Zussman J (1963) Rock-forming minerals, single-chain silicates. Longman, vol. 2A, 2nd Ed., 1978

  • Deer WA, Howie RA, Zussman J (1966) An introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Longman, 2nd Ed., 1992

  • Déruelle B, N’ni J, Kambou R (1983) Mount Cameroon: an active volcano of the Cameroon Line. J Afr Earth Sci 6(2):197–214

    Google Scholar 

  • Déruelle B, Moreau C, Nkoumbou C, Kambou R, Lissom J, Njonfang E, Ghogomu RT, Nono A (1991) The Cameroon Line: a review. In: Kampunzu AB, Lubala R (eds) Magmatism in extensional structural settings. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 274–327

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Déruelle B, Ngounouno I, Demaiffe D (2007) The ‘Cameroon Hot Line’ (CHL): a unique example of active alkaline intraplate structure in both oceanic and continental lithospheres. Compt Rendus Geosci 339(9):589–600

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fagny AM (2017) Pétrologie, géochimie et géochronologie du volcanisme cénozoïque du massif de Tchabal Mbabo (Plateau de l’Adamaoua, Cameroun, Afrique Centrale). Doctorat/PhD, Université de Ngaoundéré, 155 p + annexes

  • Fagny AM, Nkouandou OF, Déruelle B, Ngounouno I (2012) Revised petrology and new chronological data on the peralkaline felsic lavas of Ngaoundéré volcanism (Adamawa-Plateau, Cameroon, Central Africa): evidence of open-system magmatic processes. Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii “Al. I. Cuza” din Iasi Seria Geologie 58, 5-22

  • Fagny AM, Nkouandou OF, Temdjim R, Bardintzeff JM, Guillou H, Stumbea D, Boutaleb A (2016a) New K–Ar ages of Tchabal Mbabo alkaline volcano massif, Cameroon volcanic line and adamawa plateau (central Africa). Int J Adv Geosci 4(2):62–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fagny AM, Nkouandou OF, Bardintzeff JM, Temdjim R, Guillou H (2016b) Pétrologie du volcanisme Eocène-Oligocène du massif de Tchabal Mbabo, Adamaoua-Cameroun, Afrique centrale. Afrique Sci 12(6):35–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Fitton JG (1983) Active versus passive rifting. Evidence from the West African rift system. Tectonophysics 94:473–481

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fosso J, Ménard JJ, Bardintzeff JM, Wandji P, Tchoua FM, Bellon H (2005) Les laves du mont Bangou: une première manifestation volcanique éocène, à affinité transitionnelle, de la Ligne du Cameroun. Compt Rendus Geosci 337(3):315–325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hawthorne FC, Oberti R, Harlow GE, Maresch WV, Martin RF, Schumacher JC, Welch MD (2012) IMA Report. Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. Am Mineral 97(11-12):2031–2048

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hess HH (1941) Pyroxenes of common mafic magmas. Am Mineral 26(10):515–535 573-594

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofmann AW (1988) Chemical differentiation of the earth: the relationship between mantle, continental crust, and oceanic crust. Earth Planet Sci Lett 90:297–314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Irvine TN, Baragar WRA (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Can J Earth Sci 8:523–548

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kamgang P, Chazot G, Njonfang E, Tchoua FM (2008) Geochemistry and geochronology of mafic rocks from Bamenda Mountains (Cameroon): source composition and crustal contamination along the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Compt Rendus Geosci 340:850–857

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kampunzu AB, Popoff M (1991) Distribution of the main Phanerozoic African rifts and associated magmatism: introductory notes. In: Kampunzu AB, Lubala RT (eds) Magmatism in extensional structural settings, the Phanerozoic African plate. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 2–10

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Kobayashi H (1977) Kanoite, (Mn2+, Mg)2[Si2O6], a new clinopyroxene in the metamorphic rock from Tatehira, Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. J Geol Soc Jpn 83(8):537–542

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koch FW, Wiew DA, Nyblade AA, Shore PJ, Tibi R, Ateba B, Tabod CT, Nnange JM (2012) Upper-mantle anisotropy beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Congo craton from shear wave splitting measurements. Geophys J Int 190:75–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuepouo G, Tchouankoue JP, Nagao T, Sato H (2006) Transitional tholeiitic basalts in the Tertiary Bana volcano–plutonic complex, Cameroon Line. J Afr Earth Sci 45:318–332

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuno H (1947) Occurrence of porphyritic pigeonite in “Weiselbergite” from Weiselberg, Germany. Proc Jpn Acad 23:111–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kuno H (1968) Differentiation of basalt magmas. In: Hess HH, Poldervaart A (eds) Basalts: the poldervaart treatise on rocks of basaltic composition. Interscience Publishers, New York, pp 623–688

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuno H (1969) Pigeonite-bearing andesite and associated dacite from Asio, Japan. Am J Sci 267-A:257–268

    Google Scholar 

  • Lacroix A (1890) Note sur les andésites à hypersthène du Cantal. Bulletin Société géologique de France 3e série, XVIII, 881-885.

  • Le Maitre RW (ed) (2002) Igneous Rocks, A classification and glossary of terms. (Recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Lindsley DH, King HE Jr, Turnock AC (1974) Compositions of synthetic augite and hypersthene coexisting at 810°C: application to pyroxenes from lunar highlands rocks. Geophys Res Lett 1(3):134–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Macdonald R, Davies GR, Bliss CM, Leat PT, Bailey DK, Smith RL (1987) Geochemistry of high-silica peralkaline rhyolites, Naivasha, Kenya Rift Valley. J Petrol 28:979–1008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marcel CTJ, Tabod E, Manguelle-Dicoum N, P.N. (2010) Moho discontinuity depth estimates for the Cameroon Volcanic Line from gravity data. Int J Econ Environ Geol 1(1):17–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Marzoli A, Renne PR, Piccirillo EM, Castorina F, Bellieni G, Melfi AJ, Nyobe JB, N’ni J (1999) Silicic magmas from the continental Cameroon volcanic line (Oku, Bambouto and Ngaoundere): 40Ar/39Ar dates, petrology, Sr-Nd-O isotopes and their petrogenetic significance. Contrib Mineral Petrol 135:133–150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marzoli A, Piccirillo EM, Renne PR, Bellieni G, Iacumin M, Nyobe JB, Tongwa AT (2000) The Cameroon Volcanic Line revisited: petrogenesis of continental basaltic magmas from lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle sources. J Petrol 41(1):87–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marzoli A, Aka FT, Merle R, Callegaro S, N’ni J (2015) Deep to shallow crustal differentiation of within-plate alkaline magmatism at Mt. Bambouto volcano, Cameroon Line. Lithos 220-223:272–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maury RC, Brousse R (1978) Présence de pigeonite et d’orthopyroxène dans certaines laves du Massif central français: leur répartition et leur origine. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et Cristallographie 109:10–21

    Google Scholar 

  • Merle R, Marzoli A, Aka FT, Chiaradia JM, Reisberg L, Castorina F, Jourdan F, Renne PR, N’ni J, Nyobe JB (2017) Mt Bambouto Volcano, Cameroon Line: mantle source and differentiation of within-plate alkaline rocks. J Petrol 58(5):933–962

    Google Scholar 

  • Michel-Lévy A (1889) Le Mont-Dore et ses alentours. Bulletin Société Géologique de France 3e Série XVIII:743–844

    Google Scholar 

  • Milelli L, Fourel L, Jaupart C (2012) A lithospheric instability origin for the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Earth Planet Sci Lett 335-336:80–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moreau CJ, Regnoult M, Déruelle B, Robineau B (1987) A new tectonic model for the Cameroon Line, Central Africa. Tectonophysics 139-141:317–334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morgan WJ (1981) Hotspot tracks and the opening of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In: Emiliani C (ed) The sea, Vol.7. The oceanic lithosphere. Wiley, New-York, N.Y., pp 443–487

    Google Scholar 

  • Morgan WJ (1983) Hotspot tracks and the early rifting of the Atlantic. Tectonophysics 94:123–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morimoto N, Fabries J, Ferguson AK, Ginzburg IV, Ross M, Seifert FA, Zussman J, Aoki K, Gottardi G (1988) Nomenclature of pyroxenes. Mineral Mag 52:535–550

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moundi A, Ménard JJ, Reusser E, Tchoua FM, Dietrich VJ (1996) Découverte de basaltes transitionnels dans le secteur continental de la ligne du Cameroun (massif du Mbam, Ouest-Cameroun). Comptes Rendus Académie Sciences Paris, Ser IIa 322:831–837

    Google Scholar 

  • Moundi A, Wandji P, Bardintzeff JM, Ménard JJ, Okomo Atouba LC, Mouncherou OF, Reusser E, Bellon H, Tchoua FM (2007) Les basaltes éocènes à ‘affinité’ transitionnelle du plateau Bamoun, témoins d’un réservoir mantellique enrichi sous la ligne volcanique du Cameroun. Compt Rendus Geosci 339:396–406

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mullen EK, Stewart McCallum IS (2014) Origin of basalts in a hot subduction setting: petrological and geochemical insights from Mt. Baker, Northern Cascade arc. J Petrol 55(2):241–281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagaoka H, Karouji Y, Takeda H, Fagan TJ, Ebihara M, Hasebe N (2015) Mineralogy and petrology of lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 2977 consisting of olivine cumulate gabbro including inverted pigeonite. Earth, Planets Space 67(1):200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakamura Y, Kushiro I (1970a) Compositional relations of coexisting orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite in a tholeiitic andesite from Hakone Volcano. Contrib Mineral Petrol 26:265–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakamura Y, Kushiro I (1970b) Equilibrium relations of hypersthene, pigeonite and augite in crystallizing magmas: microprobe study of a pigeonite andesite from Weiselberg, Germany. Am Mineral 55(11-12):1999–2015

    Google Scholar 

  • Nkono C, Féménias O, Demaiffe D (2014) Geodynamic model for the development of the Cameroon Hot Line (Equatorial Africa). J Afr Earth Sci 100:626–633

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nkouandou OF, Ngounouno I, Déruelle B, Onhenstetter D, Montigny R, Demaiffe D (2008) Petrology of the Mio-Pliocene volcanism to the North and East of Ngaoundéré (Adamawa-Cameroon). Compt Rendus Geosci 340:28–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nkouandou OF, Sahabo A, Fagny Mefire A, Bardintzeff JM, Atour MM, Tizi A, Togo A (2016) Petrography and geochemical features of bimodal volcanism from Saltaka (Adamawa-Plateau, Cameroon, Central Africa). Sciences, Technologies et Développement, Douala 18:1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Pouchou JL, Pichoir F (1991) Quantitative analysis of homogeneous or srtatified microvolumes applying the model “PAP”. In: Heinrich KFJ, Newbury DE (eds) Electron probe quantitation. Plenum Press, New York, pp 31–75

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Poulet F, Mangold N, Platevoet B, Bardintzeff JM, Sautter V, Mustard JF, Bibring JP, Pinet P, Langevin Y, Gondet B, Aléon-Toppani A (2009) Quantitative compositional analysis of Martian mafic regions using the MEx/OMEGA reflectance data: 2. Petrological implications. Icarus 201:84–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prytulak J, Elliott T (2007) TiO2 enrichment in ocean island basalts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 263:388–403

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reusch AM, Nyblade AA, Wiens DA, Shore PJ, Ateba B, Tabod CT, Nnange JM (2010) Upper mantle structure beneath Cameroon from body wave tomography and the origin of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 11:Q10–W07

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reusch AM, Nyblade AA, Tibi R, Wiens DA, Shore PJ, Bekoa A, Tabod CT, Nnange JM (2011) Mantle transition zone thickness beneath Cameroon: evidence for an upper mantle origin for the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Geophys J Int 187:1146–1150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stout MZ, Nicholls J (1977) Mineralogy and petrology of Quaternary lavas from the Snake River Plain, ldaho. Can J Earth Sci 14(9):2140–2156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stracke A, Hofmann AW, Hart SR (2005) FOZO, HIMU, and the rest of the mantle zoo. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6(5):1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thornton CP, Tuttle OF (1960) Chemistry of igneous rocks, part 1, differentiation index. Am J Sci 258(9):664–684

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weaver BL (1991) Trace element evidence for the origin of ocean-island basalts. Geology 19:123–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson JT (1973) Mantle plume and plate motions. Tectonophysics 19:149–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xu YG, Menzies MA, Thirlwall MF, Xie GH (2001) Exotic lithosphere mantle beneath the western Yangtze craton: petrogenetic links to Tibet using highly magnesian ultrapotassic rocks. Geology 29(9):863–866

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

V. Godard (GEOPS, Paris-Saclay) made thin sections. M. Fialin and N. Rividi (Camparis, Paris) helped us for microprobe analyses. C. Cloquet, I. Molat, and D. Yeghicheyan (CRPG, Nancy) were responsable of whole-rock and isotope analyses. L. Daumas improved some figures (GEOPS, Paris-Saclay). Careful reviews were done by B. Bonin and R. Merle, and a third anonymous reviewer greatly helped us to improve the manuscript.

Funding

The authors thank the “Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie, AUF” through the “Projet de soutien aux équipes de recherche no. 51110SU201”, for providing a grant to A.F.M. (2013, 2015, 2016) and O.F.N. (2013) for several months of stay in France at the University of Paris-Sud, Orsay. Authors are grateful to “Association des Universités Africaines, AUA” for supplement analyses and other facilities.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jacques-Marie Bardintzeff.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Domenico M. Doronzo

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bardintzeff, JM., Nkouandou, O.F. & Mefire, A.F. First occurrence of pigeonite in the Cameroon Volcanic Line. Arab J Geosci 13, 496 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05442-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05442-3

Keywords

  • Cameroon
  • Tchabal Mbabo
  • Dome-flow
  • Peralkaline trachyte
  • Pigeonite
  • Silica saturation