Evaluation of social vulnerability to natural hazards: a case of Barton on Sea, England

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Abstract

In recent decades, Barton on Sea, which is a small coastal town in the south of England, has been exposed to rapid coastal, climatic and socioeconomic changes. The area is vulnerable to natural hazards such as landslides, coastal and cliff erosion and wave-induced erosion. However, there is a dearth of consistent data on the state of the environment, the level of social vulnerability and the socioeconomic status of the town’s residents. This research bridges the gap in knowledge by identifying the intensity of Barton on Sea’s social vulnerability in current scenarios. Accordingly, a Social Vulnerability Survey experiment (n = 72) was carried out in 2017. The survey results showed that natural hazards, particularly coastal and cliff erosion, have a negligible impact on people’s income. Home insurance can be acquired for the majority of coastal properties without much difficulty. This research also revealed that social vulnerability is not necessarily associated with social inequality in all environmental and geographical circumstances, and no substantial evidence was found that economic inequality increases vulnerability to natural hazards. The communities of Barton on Sea are happy even though they frequently experience the effects of natural hazards. This study provides vital data about the socioeconomic life of the Barton on Sea population that is invaluable for decision-makers’ recognition of coastal areas that require intervention, and that can guide policy measures to reduce the risk and intensity of natural hazards in order to protect the coastal frontage in the future.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Adger WN (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16:268–281

    Google Scholar 

  2. Adger WN, Brooks N (2003) Does global environmental change cause vulnerability to disaster? In: Natural disaster and development in a globalizing world. Routledge, Abingdon, pp 35–58

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alcántara-Ayala I (2004) Flowing mountains in Mexico. Mt Res Dev 24:10–14

    Google Scholar 

  4. Annett J (2002) Subjective rating scales: science or art? Ergonomics 45:966–987

    Google Scholar 

  5. Archer D, O’Donnell G, Lamb R, Warren S, Fowler HJ (2019) Historical flash floods in England: new regional chronologies and database. J Flood Risk Manag:e12526

  6. Balica SF, Wright NG, van der Meulen F (2012) A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts. Nat Hazards 64:73–105

    Google Scholar 

  7. Barclay K, Heath A (2015) The costs of housing developments on sites with elevated landslide risk in the UK. In: IOP conference series: earth and environmental science, vol 1. IOP, London, p 012037

    Google Scholar 

  8. Barton M, Garvey P (2011) Reactivation of landsliding following partial cliff stabilization at Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire, UK. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 44:233–248

    Google Scholar 

  9. Barton M, Pearce RB (2015) Landslides and stratigraphy in the coastal outcrop of the Barton Clay. Proc Geol Assoc 126:731–741

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bates FL, Peacock WG (2008) Living conditions, disasters and development: an approach to cross-cultural comparisons. University of Georgia Press, Athens

    Google Scholar 

  11. Beniston M, Stoffel M, Hill M (2011) Impacts of climatic change on water and natural hazards in the Alps: can current water governance cope with future challenges? Examples from the European “ACQWA” project. Environ Sci Pol 14:734–743

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bergstrand K, Mayer B, Brumback B, Zhang Y (2015) Assessing the relationship between social vulnerability and community resilience to hazards. Soc Indic Res 122:391–409

    Google Scholar 

  13. Blaikie P, Cannon T, Davis I, Wisner B (2005) At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. Routledge, Abingdon

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bouwer LM, Crompton RP, Faust E, Höppe P, Pielke RA (2007) Confronting disaster losses. Science 318:753–753

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bromhead E, Ibsen M-L (2004) Bedding-controlled coastal landslides in Southeast Britain between Axmouth and the Thames Estuary. Landslides 1:131–141

    Google Scholar 

  16. Brown JD, Damery SL (2002) Managing flood risk in the UK: towards an integration of social and technical perspectives. Trans Inst Br Geogr 27:412–426

    Google Scholar 

  17. Carleton T, Hsiang S (2016) Social and economic impacts of climate. Science 353:aad9837

    Google Scholar 

  18. Cerchiello V, Ceresa P, Monteiro R, Komendantova N (2018) Assessment of social vulnerability to seismic hazard in Nablus, Palestine. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 28:491–506

    Google Scholar 

  19. Chakraborty J, Tobin GA, Montz BE (2005) Population evacuation: assessing spatial variability in geophysical risk and social vulnerability to natural hazards. Nat Hazard Rev 6:23–33

    Google Scholar 

  20. Chapman VJ (2016) Coastal vegetation. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  21. Chen W, Cutter SL, Emrich CT, Shi P (2013) Measuring social vulnerability to natural hazards in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Int J Disaster Risk Sci 4:169–181

    Google Scholar 

  22. Clark JR (2018) Coastal zone management handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  23. Climent-Gil E, Aledo A, Vallejos-Romero A (2018) The social vulnerability approach for social impact assessment. Environ Impact Assess Rev 73:70–79

    Google Scholar 

  24. Cutter SL, Corendea C (2013) From social vulnerability to resilience: measuring progress toward disaster risk reduction. UNU-EHS, Bonn

    Google Scholar 

  25. Cutter SL, Emrich CT (2006) Moral hazard, social catastrophe: the changing face of vulnerability along the hurricane coasts. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci 604:102–112

    Google Scholar 

  26. Dilley M, Chen RS, Deichmann U, Lerner-Lam AL, Arnold M (2005) Natural disaster hotspots: a global risk analysis. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Disberry W, Gibson A, Inkpen R, Whitworth M, Dashwood C, Winter M (2017) The impact (blight) on house value caused by urban landslides in England and Wales. In: Workshop on World Landslide Forum. Springer, Berlin, pp 27–32

    Google Scholar 

  28. Djouder F, Boutiba M (2017) Vulnerability assessment of coastal areas to sea level rise from the physical and socioeconomic parameters: case of the Gulf Coast of Bejaia, Algeria. Arab J Geosci 10:299

    Google Scholar 

  29. Dow K, Berkhout F, Preston BL (2013) Limits to adaptation to climate change: a risk approach. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5:384–391

    Google Scholar 

  30. Emanuel K (2017) Assessing the present and future probability of Hurricane Harvey’s rainfall. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:12681–12684

    Google Scholar 

  31. Farid M, Keen M, Papaioannou M, Parry I, Pattillo C, Ter-Martirosyan A (2016) After Paris: fiscal, macroeconomic, and financial implications of climate change. IMF Staff Discussion Note 16

  32. Froude MJ, Petley D (2018) Global fatal landslide occurrence from 2004 to 2016. NHESS 18:2161–2181

    Google Scholar 

  33. Gaillard J-C (2010) Vulnerability, capacity and resilience: perspectives for climate and development policy. J Int Dev 22:218–232

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hajra R, Szabo S, Tessler Z, Ghosh T, Matthews Z, Foufoula-Georgiou E (2017) Unravelling the association between the impact of natural hazards and household poverty: evidence from the Indian Sundarban delta. Sustain Sci 12:453–464

    Google Scholar 

  35. Hulme M (2016) 1.5 C and climate research after the Paris Agreement. Nat Clim Chang 6:222–224

    Google Scholar 

  36. Hutchinson JN (1984) Landslides in Britain and their countermeasures. Landslides, 21(1):1–25.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Ismail-Zadeh A, Fucugauchi JU, Kijko A, Takeuchi K, Zaliapin I (2014) Extreme natural hazards, disaster risks and societal implications, vol 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  38. Juntunen L (2004) Addressing social vulnerability to hazards. University of Oregon, Eugene

    Google Scholar 

  39. Kantamaneni K (2016) Counting the cost of coastal vulnerability. Ocean Coast Manag 132:155–169

    Google Scholar 

  40. Kantamaneni K, Du X, Aher S, Singh R (2017) Building blocks: a quantitative approach for evaluating coastal vulnerability. Water 9:905

    Google Scholar 

  41. Kantamaneni K, Phillips M, Thomas T, Jenkins R (2018) Assessing coastal vulnerability: development of a combined physical and economic index. Ocean Coast Manag 158:164–175

    Google Scholar 

  42. Karagiorgos K, Thaler T, Hübl J, Maris F, Fuchs S (2016) Multi-vulnerability analysis for flash flood risk management. Nat Hazards 82:63–87

    Google Scholar 

  43. Keller EA, DeVecchio DE (2016) Natural hazards: earth’s processes as hazards, disasters, and catastrophes. Routledge, Abingdon

    Google Scholar 

  44. Kuhlicke C, Steinführer A, Begg C, Bianchizza C, Bründl M, Buchecker M, de Marchi B, di Masso Tarditti M, Höppner C, Komac B, Lemkow L, Luther J, McCarthy S, Pellizzoni L, Renn O, Scolobig A, Supramaniam M, Tapsell S, Wachinger G, Walker G, Whittle R, Zorn M, Faulkner H (2011) Perspectives on social capacity building for natural hazards: outlining an emerging field of research and practice in Europe. Environ Sci Pol 14:804–814

    Google Scholar 

  45. Lamond J, Proverbs D (2008) Flood insurance in the UK—a survey of the experience of floodplain residents. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 118:325–334

    Google Scholar 

  46. Lamond JE, Proverbs D, Hammond F (2009) Accessibility of flood risk insurance in the UK: confusion, competition and complacency. J Risk Res 12:825–841

    Google Scholar 

  47. Lee E, Hall J, Meadowcroft I (2001) Coastal cliff recession: the use of probabilistic prediction methods. Geomorphology 40:253–269

    Google Scholar 

  48. Majumder MSI, Hasan I, Mandal S, Islam MK, Rahman MM, Hawlader NH, Sultana I (2017) Climate change induced multi hazards disaster risk assessment in southern coastal belt of Bangladesh. Am J Environ Eng Sci 4:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  49. Marfai MA, Sekaranom AB, Ward P (2015) Community responses and adaptation strategies toward flood hazard in Jakarta, Indonesia. Nat Hazards 75:1127–1144

    Google Scholar 

  50. Mathers N, Fox N, Hunn A (2007) Surveys and questionnaires. The NIHR RDS for the East Midlands/Yorkshire & the Humber

  51. Mitchell T, Van Aalst M, Silva Villanueva P (2010) Assessing progress on integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in development processes

  52. Miao C, Ding M (2015) Social vulnerability assessment of geological hazards based on entropy method in Lushan earthquake-stricken area. Arab J Geosci 8(12):10241–10253.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Moore R, Davis G (2015) Cliff instability and erosion management in England and Wales. J Coast Conserv 19:771–784

    Google Scholar 

  54. Moore R, Stannard M, Davis G (2016) East Cliff, Lyme Regis, UK: balancing the needs of coastal protection, landslide prevention and the environment. In: 12th international symposium on landslides. Napoli, Italy.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Morgan DL (2013) Integrating qualitative and quantitative methods: a pragmatic approach. Sage, Newcastle upon Tyne

    Google Scholar 

  56. Moser CA, Kalton G (2017) Survey methods in social investigation. Routledge, Abingdon

    Google Scholar 

  57. Munang R, Thiaw I, Alverson K, Liu J, Han Z (2013) The role of ecosystem services in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5:47–52

    Google Scholar 

  58. Narayan S et al (2016) Coastal wetlands and flood damage reduction: using risk industry-based models to assess natural defenses in the Northeastern USA. https://doi.org/10.7282/T3GH9M7M

  59. Nasreen M (2004) Disaster research: exploring sociological approach to disaster in Bangladesh. Bangladesh e-J Sociol 1:21–28

    Google Scholar 

  60. New Forest District Council (2016) Barton on Sea coastal protection information leaflet & Barton on Sea instability. Available online: http://www.newforest.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=23392&p=0; http://www.scopac.org.uk/3_Peter_Ferguson.pdf. Accessed 8 Dec 2016

  61. Newton A, Weichselgartner J (2014) Hotspots of coastal vulnerability: a DPSIR analysis to find societal pathways and responses. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 140:123–133

    Google Scholar 

  62. Nguyen TT, Bonetti J, Rogers K, Woodroffe CD (2016) Indicator-based assessment of climate-change impacts on coasts: a review of concepts, methodological approaches and vulnerability indices. Ocean Coast Manag 123:18–43

    Google Scholar 

  63. Ntontis E, Drury J, Amlôt R, Rubin GJ, Williams R (2019) Community resilience and flooding in UK guidance: a critical review of concepts, definitions, and their implications. J Conting Crisis Manag 27:2–13

    Google Scholar 

  64. Pennington C, Foster C, Chambers J, Jenkins G (2009) Landslide research at the British Geological Survey: capture, storage and interpretation on a national and site-specific scale. Acta Geol Sin English edition 83:991–999

    Google Scholar 

  65. Pennington C, Dijkstra T, Lark M, Dashwood C, Harrison A, Freeborough K (2014) Antecedent precipitation as a potential proxy for landslide incidence in South West United Kingdom. In: Landslide science for a safer geoenvironment. Springer, Berlin, pp 253–259

    Google Scholar 

  66. Quintão AF, Brito I, Oliveira F, Madureira AP, Confalonieri U (2017) Social, environmental, and health vulnerability to climate change: the case of the municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Environmental and Public Health

  67. Satta A, Puddu M, Venturini S, Giupponi C (2017) Assessment of coastal risks to climate change related impacts at the regional scale: the case of the Mediterranean region. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 24:284–296

    Google Scholar 

  68. Şen Z (2018) Flood modeling, prediction and mitigation. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  69. Shukla J, Verma M, Misra A (2017) Effect of global warming on sea level rise: a modeling study. Ecol Complex 32:99–110

    Google Scholar 

  70. Singh K, Kumar V (2017) Landslide hazard mapping along national highway-154A in Himachal Pradesh, India using information value and frequency ratio. Arab J Geosci 10:539

    Google Scholar 

  71. Slovic P (2016) Understanding perceived risk: 1978–2015. Environ Sci Policy Sustain Dev 58:25–29

    Google Scholar 

  72. Strömberg D (2007) Natural disasters, economic development, and humanitarian aid. J Econ Perspect 21:199–222

    Google Scholar 

  73. Su S, Pi J, Wan C, Li H, Xiao R, Li B (2015) Categorizing social vulnerability patterns in Chinese coastal cities. Ocean Coast Manag 116:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  74. Tapia C, Abajo B, Feliu E, Mendizabal M, Martinez JA, Fernández JG, Laburu T, Lejarazu A (2017) Profiling urban vulnerabilities to climate change: an indicator-based vulnerability assessment for European cities. Ecol Indic 78:142–155

    Google Scholar 

  75. Tapsell S, McCarthy S, Faulkner H, Alexander M (2010) Social vulnerability to natural hazards. State of the art report from CapHaz-Net’s WP4 London

  76. Tian Q, Lemos MC (2018) Household livelihood differentiation and vulnerability to climate hazards in rural China. World Dev 108:321–331

    Google Scholar 

  77. UN-ISDR (2017) Terminology on disaster risk reduction. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology. Accessed June 2018

  78. UNFPA (2009) State of world population 2009- Facing a changing world: women, population and climate. Available at: https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/state_of_world_population_2009.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2015

  79. Van Aalst MK (2006) The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters. Disasters 30:5–18

    Google Scholar 

  80. Van Westen C, Van Asch TW, Soeters R (2006) Landslide hazard and risk zonation—why is it still so difficult? Bull Eng Geol Environ 65:167–184

    Google Scholar 

  81. Van Westen C, Alkema D, Damen M, Kerle N, Kingma N (2011) Multi-hazard risk assessment: distance education course guide book. United Nations University–ITC School on Disaster Geoinformation Management (UNUITC DGIM) [En línea] Disponible en: ftp://ftpitcnl/pub/westen/Multi_hazardrisk_course/Guidebook/Guidebook%20MHRA.pdf. Fecha_de_consulta_25. Accessed 22 June 2018

  82. Vousdoukas MI, Mentaschi L, Voukouvalas E, Verlaan M, Jevrejeva S, Jackson LP, Feyen L (2018) Global probabilistic projections of extreme sea levels show intensification of coastal flood hazard. Nat Commun 9:2360

    Google Scholar 

  83. West I (2016) Barton & Highcliffe—coast erosion. Available online: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/~imw/Barton-Erosion-History.htm. Accessed 21 Nov 2017

  84. Willis I, Fitton J (2016) A review of multivariate social vulnerability methodologies: a case study of the River Parrett catchment, UK. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 16:1387–1399

    Google Scholar 

  85. Zhang W, Xu X, Chen X (2017) Social vulnerability assessment of earthquake disaster based on the catastrophe progression method: a Sichuan Province case study. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct 24:361–372

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Komali Kantamaneni.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The author declare no competing interests.

This manuscript has not been previously published and is not under consideration in the same or substantially similar form in any other peer-reviewed media.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Zhihua Zhang

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kantamaneni, K. Evaluation of social vulnerability to natural hazards: a case of Barton on Sea, England. Arab J Geosci 12, 628 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-019-4819-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Barton on Sea
  • Social vulnerability
  • Natural hazards
  • Population
  • Landslides
  • Coastal erosion
  • Disasters