Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, 12:590 | Cite as

Structural analysis of T. Sundupalle greenstone belt and surrounding granitoids, Andhra Pradesh, India

  • Sukanta GoswamiEmail author
  • Vinod Kumar Maurya
  • Ravi Prakash Tiwari
  • Sudhiranjan Swain
  • M. B. Verma
Original Paper


This contribution highlights the less widely known T. Sundupalle greenstone belt and surrounding granite–gneiss complexes. The greenstone belt trends NNW and comprises supracrustal assemblages with intense deformation. Four episodes of deformation events are revealed from this present structural study. Younger deformation episodes like igneous intrusions, recrystallization, and partial melting complicates the older fabric elements. Several deformation episodes were recognized by a systematic structural analysis based on superposed fabrics and principle of cross-cutting relationships. However, due to superposed deformation, often the features become obscure. The identification of the deformation episodes through the fabric elements in the shear zone allowed a tectonic interpretation. The initial greenstone belt formation above the thin hot Archaean crust followed by sinking and partial melting to form granitoids and their lit-per-lit emplacement along foliations formed gneissosity and further deformation, folding, and partial remelting generated migmatitic gneiss. The youngest event is the dyke emplacement along different trends during extensional tectonic regime.


Structural analysis Greenstone belt T. Sundupalle schist belt Lit-per-lit intrusion Migmatitic gneiss 



We express our sincere gratitude to Shri A. K. Rai, Ex-Director, AMD, for encouragement and infrastructure support to publish the work. We are also thankful to the Editor and reviewers. Soumyajit Mukherjee (IIT Bombay) provided a detail review.


  1. Balakrishnan S, Hanson GN, Rajamani V (1990) Pb and Nd isotope constrains on the origin of high-Mg and tholeiitic amphiboliths, Kolar Schist Belt, South India. Contrib Mineral Petrol 107:279–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balakrishnan S, Hanson GN, Rajamani V (1999) U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite from the Ramagiri Area, Southern India: evidence for accretionary origin of the Eastern Dharwar Craton during the Late Archean. J Geol 107:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhaskar Rao YJ, Pantulu GVC, Damodar Reddy V, Gopalan K (1995) Time of early sedimentation and volcanism in the Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, south India: evidence from Rb-Sr age of Pulivendla mafic sill. Geol Soc India Memoir 33:329–338Google Scholar
  4. Bose N, Dutta D, Mukherjee S (2018) Role of grain-size in phyllonitisation: insights from mineralogy, microstructures, strain analyses and numerical modeling. J Struct Geol 112:39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlson RW, Pearson DG, James DE (2005) Physical, chemical, and chronological characteristics of continental mantle. Rev Geophys 43(1):RG1001. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chadwick B, Vasudev VN, Ahmed N (1996) The Sandur Schist Belt and its adjacent plutonic rocks: implications for Late Archaean crustal evolution in Karnataka. J Geol Soc India 47:37–57Google Scholar
  7. Chadwick B, Vasudev VN, Hegde GV (1997) The Dharwar craton, southern India, and its Late Archaean plate tectonic setting: current interpretations and controversies. Proc Indian Acad Sci Earth Planet Sci 106(4):1–10Google Scholar
  8. Chadwick B, Vasudevan VN, Hegde GV (2000) The Dharwar craton, southern India, interpreted as the result of Late Archaean oblique convergence. Precambrian Res 99:91–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chadwick B, Vasudev VN, Hegde GV, Nutman AP (2007) Structure and SHRIMP U/Pb zircon ages of granites adjacent to the Chitradurga schist belt: implications for Neoarchaean convergence in the Dharwar craton, southern India. J Geol Soc India 69:5–24Google Scholar
  10. Chardon D, Peucat J-J, Jayananda M, Choukroune P, Fanning CM (2002) Archean granite–greenstone tectonics at Kolar (South India): interplay of diapirism and bulk inhomogenous shortening during juvenile magmatic accretion. Tectonics 21(3):1016–7-17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cobbold PR, Quinquis H (1979) Development of sheath folds in shear regimes. J Struct Geol 2:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dasgupta T, Mukherjee S (2019) Sediment compaction and applications in petroleum geoscience. Springer, Berlin Series: Advances in Oil and Gas Exploration & Production. ISSN: 2509-372XGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis GH, Reynolds SJ (1996) Structural geology of rocks and regions. Wiley, Hoboken ISBN 0-471-52621-5Google Scholar
  14. Dey S, Nandy J, Choudhary AK, Liu Y, Zong K (2014) Origin and evolution of granitoids associated with the Kadiri greenstone belt, eastern Dharwar craton: a history of orogenic to anorogenic magmatism. Precambrian Res 246:64–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Elkins-Tanton LT (2008) Linked magma ocean solidification and atmospheric growth for Earth and Mars. Earth Planet Sci Lett 271(1–4):181–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. French JE, Heaman LM (2010) Precise U-Pb dating of Paleoprotoerozoic maficdyke swarms of the Dharwar craton, India: implications for the existence of the Neoarchean supercraton Sclavia. Precambrian Res 183:416–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Friend CRL, Nutman AP (1991) SHRIMP U–Pb geochronology of the Closepet granite and Peninsular gneisses, Karnataka, South of India. J Geol Soc India 38:357–368Google Scholar
  18. Gerya T (2014) Precambrian geodynamics: concepts and models. Gondwana Res 25(2):442–463. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goswami S, Upadhyay PK (2019) Tectonic history of the granitoids and Kadiri schist belt in the SW of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. In: Mukherjee S (ed) Tectonics and structural geology: Indian context. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, pp 253–278 ISBN 978-3-319-99340-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goswami S, Mukherjee A, Zakaulla S, Rai AK (2016a) Stress states, faulting and their effects on the Papaghni Group, Cuddapah Basin, India: a study along Giddankivaripalle-Madyalabodu tract. Indian J Geosci 70:17–33Google Scholar
  21. Goswami S, Sivasubramaniam R, Bhagat S, Kumar S, Sarbajna C (2016b) Algoma type BIF and associated submarine volcano-sedimentary sequence in Ramagiri granite-greenstone terrain, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Appl Geochem 18(2):155–169Google Scholar
  22. Goswami S, Upadhayay PK, Bhattacharjee P, Murugan MG (2017) Tectonic setting of the Kadiri schist belt, Andhra Pradesh, India. Acta Geol Sin 91(6):1992–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hawkesworth CJ, Cawood PA, Dhuime B (2016) Tectonics and crustal evolution. GSA Today 26(9):4–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jayananda M, Moyen JF, Martin H, Peucat JJ, Auvray B, Mahabaleshwar B (2000) Late Archean (2550–2520 Ma) juvenile magmatism in the eastern Dhar-war craton, southern India: constraints from geochronology, Nd–Sr isotopes and whole rock geochemistry. Precambrian Res 99:225–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson AM (1970) Formation of sheet structure in granite, chap 10. In: Physical processes on geology. Freeman Cooper and Company, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  26. Kamber BS (2015) The evolving nature of terrestrial crust from the Hadean, through the Archaean, into the Proterozoic. Precambrian Res 258:48–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kamber BS, Whitehouse MJ, Bolhar R, Moorbath S (2005) Volcanic resurfacing and the early terrestrial crust: zircon U-Pb and REE constraints from the Isua Greenstone Belt, southern West Greenland. Earth Planet Sci Lett 240(2):276–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krogstad EJ, Hanson GN, Rajamani V (1991) U–Pb ages of zircon and sphene for two gneiss terranes adjacent to the Kolar Schist Belt, South India: evidence for separate crustal evolution histories. J Geol 99:801–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krogstad EJ, Hanson GN, Rajamani V (1995) Sources of continental magmatism adjacent to the late Archaean Kolar Suture zone, South India: distinct isotopic and elemental signature of two late Archaean magmatic series. Contrib Mineral Petrol 122:159–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kumar A, Bhaskar Rao YJ, Sivaraman TV, Gopalan K (1996) Sm–Nd ages of Archaean metavolcanic of the Dharwar craton. South India Precambrian Research 80:206–215Google Scholar
  31. Manikyamba C, Khanna TC (2005) Geochemical characteristics of adakites from Sandur schist belt (SSB) e implications on their tectonic setting. In: Geology and Energy Resources of NE India: Progress and Prespectives Proceedings of the National Seminar on, Kohima, Nagaland, India, pp 99e100.Google Scholar
  32. Mojzsis SJ, Devaraju TC, Newton RC (2003) Ion microprobe U-Pb determinations on zircon from the late Archaean granulite facies transition zone of southern India. J Geol 111:407–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moyen JF, Nédélec A, Martin H, Jayananda M (2002) Syntectonic granite emplacement at different structural levels: the Closepet granite, South India. J Struct Geol 25(4):611–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mukherjee S (2011) Mineral fish: their morphological classification, usefulness as shear sense indicators and genesis. Int J Earth Sci 100:1303–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mukherjee S (2012) Simple shear is not so simple! Kinematics and shear senses in Newtonian viscous simple shear zones. Geol Mag 149:819–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mukherjee S (2013a) Deformation microstructures in rocks. Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy Berlin, pp 1–111. ISBN 978-3-642-25608-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mukherjee S (2013b) Higher Himalaya in the Bhagirathi section (NW Himalaya, India): its structures, backthrusts and extrusion mechanism by both channel flow and critical taper mechanisms. Int J Earth Sci 102:1851–1870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mukherjee S (2014) Atlas of shear zone structures in meso-scale. Springer Geology, Cham, pp 1–124 ISBN 978-3-319-0088-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mukherjee S (2015) Atlas of structural geology. Elsevier, Amsterdam ISBN: 978-0-12-420152-1Google Scholar
  40. Mukherjee S (2017a) Review on symmetric structures in ductile shear zones. Int J Earth Sci 106:1453–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mukherjee S (2017b) Shear heating by translational brittle reverse faulting along a single, sharp and straight fault plane. J Earth Syst Sci 126(1)Google Scholar
  42. Mukherjee S (2017c) Airy's isostatic model: a proposal for a realistic case. Arab J Geosci 10:268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mukherjee S (2018) Moment of inertial for rock blocks subject to bookshelf faulting with geologically plausible density distributions. J Earth Syst Sci 127:80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mukherjee S (2019) Kinematics of pure shear ductile deformation within rigid walls: new analyses. In: Billi A, Fagereng A (eds) Problems and solutions in structural geology and tectonics. Series Editor: Mukherjee S. Developments in Structural Geology and Tectonics Book Series. Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISSN: 2542-9000, pp 81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mukherjee S, Khonsari MM (2017) Brittle rotational faults and the associated shear heating. Mar Pet Geol 88:551–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mukherjee S, Khonsari MM (2018) Inter-book normal fault-related shear heating in brittle bookshelf faults. Mar Pet Geol 97:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2010a) Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Zanskar Section- Microstructural studies & extrusion mechanism by a combination of simple shear & channel flow. Int J Earth Sci 99:1083–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mukherjee S, Koyi HA (2010b) Higher Himalayan Shear Zone, Sutlej Section- Structural geology & extrusion mechanism by various combinations of simple shear, pure shear & channel flow in shifting modes. Int J Earth Sci 99:1267–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mukherjee S, Mulchrone KF (2013) Viscous dissipation pattern in incompressible Newtonian simple shear zones: an analytical model. Int J Earth Sci 102:1165–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mukherjee S, Punekar J, Mahadani T, Mukherjee R (2015) A review on intrafolial folds and their morphologies from the detachments of the western Indian Higher Himalaya. In: Mukherjee S, Mulchrone KF (eds) Ductile Shear Zones: From Micro- to Macro-scales. Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 182–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mukherjee S, Goswami S, Mukherjee A (2018) Structures and their tectonic implications of the southern part of Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India. Iranian J Sci Technol Trans A Sci 43:489–505. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mulchrone KF, Mukherjee S (2015) Shear senses and viscous dissipation of layered ductile simple shear zones. Pure Appl Geophys 172:2635–2642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mulchrone KF, Mukherjee S (2016) Kinematics and shear heat pattern of ductile simple shear zones with ‘slip boundary condition’. Int J Earth Sci 105:1015–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Naqvi SM, Rogers JJW (1987) Precambrian geology of India. Oxford University Press, New York 223pGoogle Scholar
  55. Nutman AP, Ehlers K (1998) Evidence for multiple Palaeoproterozoic thermal events and magmatism adjacent to the Broken Hill Pb- Zn-Ag orebody, Australia. Precambrian Res 90:203–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nutman AP, Chadwick B, Krishna Rao B, Vasudev VN (1996) SHRIMP U–Pb zircon ages of acid volcanic rocks in the Chitradurga and Sandur Groups and granites adjacent to Sandur schist belt. J Geol Soc India 47:153–161Google Scholar
  57. Passchier CW (1986) Flow in natural shear zones—the consequences of spinning flow regimes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 77:70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Platt JP (1983) Progressive refolding in ductile shear zones. J Struct Geol 5:619–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ramakrishnan M (1993) Tectonic evolution of the granulite terrains of southern India. Geol Soc India Mem 25:35–44Google Scholar
  60. Ramakrishnan M, Vaidyanadhan R (2008) Geology of India, vol 1. Geol. Soc, Bangalore 556pGoogle Scholar
  61. Ramsay JG (1967) Folding and fracturing of rocks. McGraw-Hill, New York 568 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramsay JG, Huber MI (1997) The techniques of modern structural geology, vol 2, Folds and fractures. Academic Press Elsevier Ltd, ISBN - 13:978-0-12-576922-8Google Scholar
  63. Sizova E, Gerya T, Brown M, Perchuk LL (2010) Subduction styles in the Precambrian: insight from numerical experiments. Lithos 116(3–4):209–229. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Swami Nath J, Ramakrishnan M (1981) The early Precambrian supracrustals of southern Karnataka. Mem Geol Surv India 112:350Google Scholar
  65. Swami Nath J, Ramakrishnan M (1990) Early Precambrian supracrustals of southern Karnataka. A present classification and correlation. Mem Geol Surv India 19:145–163Google Scholar
  66. Taylor PN, Chadwick B, Moorbath S, Ramakrishnan M, Viswanathan MN (1984) Petrography, chemistry and isotopic ages of Peninsular gneisses, Dharwar acid volcanic rocks and Chitradurga granite with special reference to the Archaean evolution of the Karnataka craton. Precambrian Res 23:349–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vasudev VN, Chadwick B, Nutman AP, Hegde GV (2000) Rapid development of late Archaean Hutti schist belt, northern Karnataka: implications of new field data and SHRIMP zircon ages. J Geol Soc India 55:529–540Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations