Statistical analysis of the hydro-geochemical evolution of groundwater in the aquifers of the Yarmouk basin, North Jordan

  • Iyad Ahmed Abboud
Original Paper


The aim of this study is to determine the main factors affecting the quality of groundwater and its changes through hydro-geochemical analysis and statistical studies. Therefore, hydro-geochemical properties of groundwater are analyzed as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3, Cl, NO3, SO42−, and F as well as their statistical data. Correlation, cluster, and factor analyses were applied on 1322 groundwater samples collected from 148 wells distributed through Yarmouk basin region, North Jordan. Clusters analysis shows two groups of ionic concentrations. Cluster 1 includes 37% of the total samples and classified as brackish and unsuitable water, while 63% follows cluster 2 and is classified as moderately soft and suitable water. Factor analysis tends to increase concentration and spread of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl, and SO42− in the groundwater through factor 1 which reflects the high salinity as a result of over-pumping, weathering processes, and salts leaching from the top soil. Cluster 2 shows high concentrations of NO3 in groundwater as a result of the pollution due to agricultural and industrial human activities. Factor scores suggest the main hydro-geochemical zones in the study area, which are distributed in the northern, eastern, and south-eastern parts, which recorded an increase of Cl (high salinity areas). The western region appears to increase in nitrate and chlorine concentrations (high level of salinity), while hardness factor spreads across the northern and southern parts of the study area.


Hydrogeochemistry Groundwater Multivariate analysis Factor analysis Yarmouk basin Jordan 



I am grateful to the laboratory of Water and Irrigation Authority in the Water Ministry, Amman, Jordan, and the Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Al al-Bayt University, Jordan, for helping to water analyses. I am thankful to Mr. Sa’ed Abu Snineh for helping in data collection.

Supplementary material

12517_2018_3448_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (173 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 173 kb)


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© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Geology/Biology DepartmentTaibah UniversityAl-Madinah Al-MunawarahSaudi Arabia

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