Skin friction behavior of pile fully embedded in limestone

  • Abdulhafiz Alshenawy
  • Wagdi Hamid
  • Ahmed Alnuaim
Original Paper


Pile foundation system in limestone rock layers is commonly used in Riyadh area, Saudi Arabia, for high-rise building, bridges, and other structures. Especially in Riyadh region, bored piles are used for bridges and underpasses not only because of bearing capacity but mainly because of limited spaces for using shallow foundations. In addition, piles are used for bridges over wadis to avoid scouring effects. The loads are transferred by the pile from a superstructure to the rock strata through side friction and end-bearing resistance. However, there are no studies conducted in Riyadh area to quantify the skin friction capacity of pile embedded in limestone rock. Accordingly, this experimental study describes in details the behavior of load transfer mechanism through side friction only on a reinforced concrete pile (75 mm diameter and 150 mm long) constructed on hard limestone rock sample. Soft material (Styrofoam) was placed at the bottom of the pile to eliminate the effect of end-bearing resistance. Unconfined compression test was conducted on intact rock sample to find out the properties of the rock used. The result of the ultimate side friction obtained from the test was compared with values predicted by other researcher methods mentioned in the literature.


Limestone rock Pile Side friction Pile load test Unconfined compression test 



The authors acknowledge the college of Engineering Research Center and Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University in Riyadh for the financial support to carry out the research work reported in this paper. The authors would like to thank Shibh Aljazira for Deep Foundations Company and Arab Company for Laboratories and Soil—Riyadh branch—for providing some technical support during conducting this study.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdulhafiz Alshenawy
    • 1
  • Wagdi Hamid
    • 1
  • Ahmed Alnuaim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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