Investigation on mining-induced fractured zone height developed in different layers above Jurassic coal seam in western China

  • Shiliang Liu
  • Wenping Li
  • Qiqing Wang
  • Yabing Pei
Original Paper


The mining-induced fractured zone height (MIFZH) is of significant importance for water hazard prevention and regional eco-environmental conservation in the Jurassic coal field of western China. The paper discussed MIFZH developed in bedrock and Neogene laterite from two aspects of field measurement and theoretical analysis respectively. In theoretical analysis of MIFZH developed in bedrock, based on plate and shell theory, each stratum in bedrock above the coalface stress-decreasing zone was simplified as four clamped rectangular plates, and the value of the ultimate deflection of the thin plate and the height of the free space in the lower part of the stratum were compared to judge MIFZH. When MIFZH was developed in Neogene laterite, MIFZH was calculated by Pu’s theory and rock mass limit equilibrium theory in theoretical analysis; in on-site measurement, micro resistivity scanning imaging logging technology (MRSILT), overcoming the shortage of fluid leakage technology, was adopted to detect MIFZH, where its measured result proved the feasibility of theoretical analysis. The research results have important significance to water conservation mining and safety mining of the Jurassic coal seam in western China.


MIFZH Bedrock Neogene laterite Theoretical analysis On-site measurement 

List of symbols


The bulk density of overlying strata


The buried depth of overlying strata


The linear triangular load caused by mining pressure in stress reduction zone


The lateral total load on the rectangular thin plate


The strike length of overlying strata


The width of overlying strata


The bending stiffness of a thin plate


The thickness of overlying each stratum


Poisson’s ratio of strata


Elastic module of strata


The thin plate limit span of strike length


The thin plate limit span of inclined length


The shape coefficient of a thin plate


The free space height of the i th layer stratum


The mining thickness of coal seam


The broken expansion coefficient of the j th layer stratum


Ultimate deflection of a thin plate


Tensile strength


Firmness coefficient


The half of strike span of equilibrium arch in laterite


Horizontal reaction force


Vertical reaction force


The distance from the top boundary of equilibrium arch to surface


Bedrock thickness


Mining-induced fractured zone height



The authors would like to express their gratitude to everyone who provided assistance for the present study. This research was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2017XKZD07).

Supplementary material

12517_2018_3383_MOESM1_ESM.doc (48 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 47 kb)


  1. Chai HC, Li WP (2014) Analysis of developing mechanism of water transmitting fractured zone mining approaching to weathered and oxidized zone. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 33(7):1319–1328Google Scholar
  2. Chen RH, Bai HB, Feng MM (2006) Determination of the height of water flowing fractured zone in overburden strata above fully-mechanized top-coal caving face. J Min Saf Eng 23(2):220–223Google Scholar
  3. Fan GW, Zhang DS, Ma LQ (2011) Overburden movement and fracture distribution induced by longwall mining of the shallow coal seam in the Shendong coalfield. J Chin Univ Min Technol 40(2):196–201Google Scholar
  4. Gao YF (1996) “Four-zone” model of rock mass movement and back analysis displacement. J China Coal Soc 21(1):51–56Google Scholar
  5. Gao YF, Huang WP, Liu GL, Zhang SF, Zhu QM, Deng ZY (2012) The relationship between permeable fractured zone and rock stratum tensile deformation. J Min Saf Eng 29(3):301–306Google Scholar
  6. Hu XJ, Li WP, Cao DT, Liu MC (2012) Index of multiple factors and expected height of fully mechanized water flowing fractured zone. J China Coal Soc 37(4):613–620Google Scholar
  7. Huang KZ (1987) Theory of plate and shell. Tsinghua University press, Beijing, pp 112–114Google Scholar
  8. Huang QX, Wei BN, Zhang WZ (2010) Study of downward crack closing of clay aquiclude in shallowly buried coal seam. J Min Saf Eng 27(1):39–43Google Scholar
  9. Jia WY, Tian SY, Sun YT (2000) Imaging logging technology and its application. Petroleum Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  10. Juan LB (1996) Mathcad. Editorial Club Universitario, Alicante, pp 66–67Google Scholar
  11. Li WP, Duan ZH, Hua JM, Ye GJ, Zhao XJ, Yang HK (2000a) Evaluation of present geological environment and prediction of its variation caused by mining in Yushenfu mine area of north Shaanxi. J Eng Geol 8(3):324–333Google Scholar
  12. Li WP, Ye GJ, Zhang L (2000b) Study on the engineering geological conditions of protected water resources during coal mining action in Yushenfu mine area in the north Shaanxi Province. J China Coal Soc 25(5):449–454Google Scholar
  13. Li T, Li WP, Chang JY, Du PP, Gao Y (2011) Permeability features of water-resistant clay layer in northern Shaanxi province while shallowly buried coal mining. J Min Saf Eng 28(1):127–131 137Google Scholar
  14. Liu XS, Tan YL, Ning JG, Tian C, Wang J (2015) The height of water-conducting fractured zones in longwall mining of shallow coal seams. Geotech Geol Eng 33(3):693–700. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu SL, Li WP, Wang QQ, He JH, Xue S (2017) Water inrush risk zoning and water conservation mining technology in the shennan mining area, Shaanxi, China. Arab J Sci Eng.
  16. Majdia A, Hassani FP, Yousef NM (2012) Prediction of the height of destressed zone above the mined panel roof in longwall coal mining. Int J Coal Geol 98:62–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miao XX, Cui XM, Wang JA, Xu J (2011) The height of fractured water-conducting zone in undermined rock strata. Eng Geol 120(1-4):32–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ning JG, Liu XS, Tan YL, Wang J, Zhang M, Zhang L (2015) Water-preserved mining evaluation in shallow seam with sandy mudstone roof. J Min Saf Eng 32(5):814–820Google Scholar
  19. Palchik V (2003) Formation of fractured zones in overburden due to longwall mining. Environ Geol 44(1):28–38. Google Scholar
  20. Qian MG, Shi PW, Xu JL (2010) Ground pressure and strata control. China University of Mining and Technology Press, Xuzhou, pp 86–87Google Scholar
  21. Qiao W, Li WP,Li T, Chang JY, Wang QQ (2017) Effects of coal mining on shallow water resources in semiarid regions: a case study in the Shennan Mining Area, Shaanxi, China. Mine Water Environ 36(1):104–113Google Scholar
  22. Shi LQ, Xin HQ, Zhai PH, Li SC, Liu TB, Yan Y (2012) Calculating the height of water flowing fracture zone in deep mining. J China Univ Min Technol 41(1):37–41Google Scholar
  23. Sun YJ, ZM X, Dong QH (2009) Monitoring and simulation research on development of water flowing fractures for coal mining under xiaolangdi reservoir. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 28(2):238–245Google Scholar
  24. Tan XS, Xian XF (1994) Composite rock mass mechanics theory and its application. Coal Industry Press, Beijing, pp 77–78Google Scholar
  25. Wang LG, Wang ZS, Huang JH, Zhou DL (2012) Prediction on the height of water-flowing fractured zone for shallow seam covered with bedrock and thick windblown sands. J Min Saf Eng 29(5):607–612Google Scholar
  26. Wang G, Wu MM, Wang R, Xu H, Song X (2016) Height of the mining-induced fractured zone above a coal face. Eng Geol.
  27. Wei JC, Wu FZ, Xie DL, Yin HY, Guo JB (2016a) Development characteristic of water flowing fractured zone under semi-cemented medium-low strength country rock. J China Coal Soc 41(4):974–983Google Scholar
  28. Wei JC, Wu FZ, Yin HY, Guo JB, Xie DL (2016b) Formation and height of the interconnected fractures zone after extraction of thick coal seams with overburden in western China. Mine Water Environ.
  29. Wu WS (2000) Geological application of formation microscanner logging. China Offshore Oil Gas 14(6):438–441Google Scholar
  30. Wu Q, Guo XM, Shen JJ, Xu S, Liu S, Zeng Y (2016a) Risk assessment of water inrush from aquifers underlying the Gushuyuan coal mine, China. Mine Water Environ 36(1):96–103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wu Q, Xu K, Zhang W (2016b) Further research on “three maps-two predictions” method for prediction on coal seam roof water bursting risk. J China Coal Soc 41(6):1341–1347Google Scholar
  32. Xu ZL (1982) Elastic mechanics. People’s Education Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  33. Xu JL, Wang XZ, Liu WT, Wang Z (2009) Effects of primary key stratum location on height of water flowing fracture zone. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 28(2):380–385Google Scholar
  34. Yan ZD (2013) Innovation and practice of new mechanized mining equipment and technology. Coal Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  35. Yao XR, Zhu YH (2012) Coal mine drilling technology and safety. Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, pp 125–127Google Scholar
  36. Zhang MS, Dang XY (2014) Water resources and environmental problems in arid and semi arid regions—analysis of Yulin energy and chemical base in northern Shaanxi. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang DS, Fan GW, Ma LQ, Wang A, Liu YD (2009) Harmony of large-scale underground mining and surface ecological environment protection in desert district-a case study in Shendong mining area, northwest of China. Procedia Earth Planet 1:1114–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang W, Zhang DS, LX W, Wang HZ (2014) On-site radon detection of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface: a case study of the baoshan coal mine in China. Energies 7(12):8483–8507. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang Y, Ye JH, Ji HG, Wang JN (2016) Identifying the development of mining-induced fractures zone using dynamic stress tracing method. Rock Soil Mech 37(11):3291–3323Google Scholar
  40. Zhao BC, Liu ZR, Tong C, Wang C (2015) Relation between height of water flowing fractured zone and mining parameters. J Min Saf Eng 32(4):634–638Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shiliang Liu
    • 1
  • Wenping Li
    • 1
  • Qiqing Wang
    • 1
  • Yabing Pei
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Resources and GeosciencesChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Nuclear Industry Huzhou Engineering Survey InstituteHuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations