Gold mineralization in Bubin area, Gilgit-Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan
- 169 Downloads
The complex history of crustal evolution and the diverse geological history of Northern areas of Pakistan (i.e., Indian Plate, Kohistan-Ladakh Island arc, and Eurasian Plate) made the area most favorable for economic mineral deposits such as gold and copper. Sulfide-bearing mineralized rock samples from Ladakh terrane are analyzed for gold, silver, and base metals. Bulk samples analyses for gold, silver, and base metal concentrations demonstrate that almost all samples have variable amounts of gold, silver, and base metals. In these samples, gold concentration up to 95 ppm was found in chalcopyrite, galena-rich mineralized quartz veins, and their alteration products. The mineralized veins are few meters to 10 m wide and are associated with dioritic rocks. Dominant minerals in the mineralized zone include galena, chalcopyrite, limonite, pyrite, and malachite. The enrichment and depletion of different types of minerals suggest that the magmatic hydrothermal fluids played a key role in copper and lead mineralization with gold concentration. Study of ore minerals in these samples shows association with sulfide-bearing alterations in shear zones.
KeywordsGold mineralization Ore microscopy QEMSCAN Kohistan-Ladakh Pakistan
We are very thankful to National Centre of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan and Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, USA for providing all the facilities for this research work.
We are also very thankful to the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan and US State Department, USA for the financial support to conduct this research under the PAK-US Joint Science and Technology Phase-IV program.
- Austromineral (1976) Final report (feasibility study), Indus gold project: submitted to Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation by Austromineral, Vienna, pp 1–235Google Scholar
- Austromineral (1978) Feasibility study (final report), Mineral exploration and mining development, Chitral District: submitted to the Sarhad Development Authority. Peshawar Pakistan by Austromineral, Vienna, pp 1–289Google Scholar
- Calkins JA, Jamiluddin S, Bhuyan K, Hussain A (1981) Geology and mineral resources of the Chitral-Partsan area, Hindu Kush Range, northern Pakistan. US Govt. print. Off.; for sale by the distribution branch. US Geological ServiceGoogle Scholar
- Cooke DR, Simmons SF (2000) Characteristics and genesis of epithermal gold deposits. Rev Econ Geol 13:221–244Google Scholar
- Hamidullah S (1991) Chemistry of clinopyroxene from the Deosai volcanics, Baltistan, N. Pakistan Proc 2nd Geol Cong Pakistan, Spec Publ. Geol Bull Univ Peshawar 24:161–176Google Scholar
- Hamidullah S, Jan MQ, Khan B (1992) Petrography of the Deosai volcanics, N. Pakistan. Geol Bull Univ Peshawar 25:17–22Google Scholar
- Hubert AE, Chao TT (1985) Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological material by atomic absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction. Talanta 32(7):568–570Google Scholar
- Jeffery P, Hutchison D (1986) Chemical methods of rock analysis by Pargamon Press OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Khan SD, Okyay U, Ahmad L, Shah MT (2017) Characterization of gold mineralization in Northern Pakistan using imaging spectroscopy, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote SensingGoogle Scholar
- Razique A (2013) Magmatic evolution and genesis of the giant Reko Diq H14-H15 porphyry copper-gold deposit, District Chagai, BaluchistanGoogle Scholar
- Razique A, Tosdal R, Beshir A, Ahmed N, Malik A (2011) The Reko Diq porphyry copper-gold district, Chagi belt, Balochistan Province, Pakistan, SGA Biennial Meeting, 11th Antofagasta Chile, Conference Proceedings 1: 437–439Google Scholar
- Razique A, Tosdal RM, Creaser RA (2014) Temporal evolution of the western porphyry Cu-Au systems at Reko Diq, Balochistan. Western Pakistan Econ Geol 109:2003–2021Google Scholar
- Robb L (2013) Introduction to ore-forming processes. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
- Sweatman T, Clavarino J, Dawney R (1995) Drainage geochemical exploration and mineral potential of Northern Pakistan Rex Sweatman and associates. Aust Agen Int Dev 91Google Scholar
- White NC, Hedenquist JW (1995) Epithermal gold deposits: styles, characteristics and exploration SEG. Newsletter 23:9–13Google Scholar