Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, 10:381 | Cite as

Fluoride contamination in Gharbar Village of Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India: source identification and management

  • Pruthvi Patolia
  • Alok SinhaEmail author
Original Paper


This paper reports occurrence of high fluoride concentration in groundwater of Gharbar Village, Dhanbad District, Jharkhand, India. The concentration of fluoride varied from 0.3 to 14.9 mg/L in 27 groundwater samples. The correlation studies demonstrate that fluoride has strong positive correlation with pH and sodium and negative correlation with calcium. It indicates dominance of ion exchange activity and rock water interaction. Thermodynamic consideration shows that all the samples were oversaturated with calcite and most of the samples were under saturated with fluorite. The results indicate that occurrence of high concentration of fluoride is leading by geochemical composition of rocks, alkaline environmental condition, weathering of rocks and ion exchange processes.


Fluoride Groundwater Gharbar Dhanbad 


  1. Ahmed S, Sreedevi PD (2002) Cyclic variation of fluoride contents in a granite aquifer in semi-arid region. ICWRMA, KuwaitGoogle Scholar
  2. APHA (1992) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. BIS (2003) Indian standard specifications for drinking water. Bureau of Indian Standards, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  4. Brindha, K., Elango, L. (2011) Fluoride in groundwater: causes, implications and mitigation measures. In: Monroy SD (ed) Fluoride properties, applications and environmental management, 1st edn. Nova, New York, p 111–136Google Scholar
  5. Brown E, Skougstad MW, Fishman MJ (1970) Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases. In: Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. United States Goverment Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  6. CGWB (2013) Groundwater information booklet-Dhanbad district. Jharkhand state, Ministry of Water Resources, PatnaGoogle Scholar
  7. Chae G-T, Yun S-T, Mayer B, Kim K-H, Kim S-Y, Kwon J-S, Kim K, Koh Y-K (2007) Fluorine geochemistry in bedrock groundwater of South Korea. Sci Total Environ 385(1–3):272–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coetsiers M, Kilonzo F, Walraevens K (2008) Hydrochemistry and source of high fluoride in groundwater of the Nairobi area, Kenya. Hydrol Sci J 53(6):1230–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dinesh C (1998) Fluoride and human health-cause for concern. Ind J Environ Protec 2(19):81–89Google Scholar
  10. Duraiswami RA, Patankar UR (2011) Occurrence of fluoride in the drinking water sources from Gad River basin, Maharashtra, India. J Geol Soc India 77(2):167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo Q, Wang Y, Ma T, Ma R (2007) Geochemical processes controlling the elevated fluoride concentrations in groundwaters of the Taiyuan Basin, northern China. J Geochem Explor 93(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gupta S, Banerjee S (2009) Fluoride accumulation in paddy irrigated with fluoride-contaminated groundwater in the Birbhum District, West Bengal. Res Rep Fluoride 42(3):224–227Google Scholar
  14. Handa BK (1975) Geochemistry and genesis of fluoride containing groundwater in India. Groundwater 3(13):275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hem JD (1991) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water (3rd edn.). United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 2254, Scientific Pub, Jodhpur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  16. Jacks G, Bhattacharya P, Chaudhary V, Singh KP (2005) Controls on the genesis of some high-fluoride groundwaters in India. Appl Geochem 20:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Karanth KR (1989) Hydrogeology. McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, p 720Google Scholar
  18. Khan SMMN, Ravikumar A (2013) Role of alkalinity for the release of fluoride in the groundwater of Tiruchengode Taluk, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, India. Chem Sci Trans 2(S1):S302–S308Google Scholar
  19. Lloyd JA, Heathcote JA (1985) Natural inorganic hydrochemistry in relation to groundwater: an introduction. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. María G, Laura B (2015) Chapter 1: Fluoride in the context of the environment. In book: Fluorine: Chemistry, Analysis, Function and Effects. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, p 3–21Google Scholar
  21. Meenakshi RC, Maheshwari J (2006) Fluoride in drinking water and its removal. J Haz Mater 137:456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mondal NC, Prasad RK, Saxena VK, Singh Y, Singh VS (2009) Appraisal of highly fluoride zones in groundwater of Kurmapalli watershed, Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh (India). Environ Earth Sci 59(1):63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pande G, Sinha A, Agrawal S (2015) Impacts of leachate percolation on ground water quality: a case study of Dhanbad City. Global Nest J 17(1):162–174Google Scholar
  24. Rainwater FH, Thatcher LL (1960) Methods for collection and analysis of water samples. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper No.1454, 301Google Scholar
  25. Ramesam V, Rajagopalan K (1985) Fluoride ingestion into the natural waters of hard-rock areas, Peninsular India. J Geol Soc India 26:125–132Google Scholar
  26. Rao NVR, Rao N, Rao SP, Schuiling RD (1993) Fluorine distributionin waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Geol 21:84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh R, Maheshwari R (2001) Defluoridation of drinking water—a review. Ind J Environ Protec 11(21):983–991Google Scholar
  28. Singh AK, Mondal GC, Singh S, Singh PK, Singh TB, Tewary BK, Sinha A (2007) Aquatic geochemistry of Dhanbad, Jharkhand: source evaluation and quality assessment. J Geol Soc India 69:1088–1102Google Scholar
  29. Srinivasa RN (1997) The occurrence and behaviour of fluoride in the groundwater of the lower Vamsadhara River basin. India Hydrol Sci J 6(42):877–892Google Scholar
  30. Srivastava VK, Giri DN, Bhardwaj P (2012) Study and mapping of ground water prospect using remote sensing, GIS and geoelectrical resistivity techniques—a case study of Dhanbad district, Jharkhand. India J Ind Geophys Union 16(2):55–63Google Scholar
  31. WHO (2004) Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations