Skip to main content

Diagenesis and its controls on reservoir properties and hydrocarbon potential in tight sandstone: a case study from the Upper Triassic Chang 7 oil group of Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China

Abstract

The sandstones in the Chang 7 oil group are typically recognized as unconventional tight clastic rock reservoirs. These sandstones are fine-grained and have low permeability and porosity and low textural and compositional maturity. In the present study, optical microscopy, SEM, cathodoluminescence, and wireline log, core analysis permeability and porosity, and production test data are applied to analyze the diagenesis and its controls on hydrocarbon potential in these tight sandstones. The results indicate that the sedimentary environment and diagenesis controlled the physical properties of the reservoir. Three different diagenesis processes were likely occurred in these sandstones. Early strong carbonate cementation is a key factor for other subsequent alterations and the final reservoir properties. The sandstones dominated by dissolution and compaction have more capacity for hydrocarbon preservation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

References

  1. Bennett PC (1991) Quartz dissolution in organic-rich aqueous system. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:1781–1797

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bjørlykke K, Egeberg PK (1993) Quartz cementation in sedimentary basins. AAPG Bull 77:1538–1548

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bjørlykke K, Ramm M, Salgal GC (1989) Sandstone diagenesis and porosity modification during basin evolution. Geol Rundsch 18:243–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Blake RE, Walter LM (1999) Kinetics of feldspar and quartz dissolution at 70-80°C and near neutral pH effects of organic acids and NaCl. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:2043–2059

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Boles JR, Landis CA, Dale P (1985) The Moeraki boulders-anatomy of some septarian concretions. J Sediment Petrol 55:398–406

    Google Scholar 

  6. Dai JX, Ni YY, Wu XQ (2012) Tight gas in China and its significance in exploration and exploitation. Pet Explor Dev 39:277–284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Deng XQ, Lin FX, Liu XY, Pang JL, Lü JW, Li SX, Liu X (2008) Discussion on relationship between sedimentary evolution of the Triassic Yanchang Formation and the Early Indosinian Movement in Ordos Basin. J Palaeogeogr 10:159–166

    Google Scholar 

  8. Deng XQ, Li WH, Liu XS, Pang JL, Liu X (2009) Discussion on the stratigraphic boundary between Middle Triassic and Upper Triassic. Acta Geol Sin 83:1089–1096

    Google Scholar 

  9. Deng XQ, Fu JH, Yao JL, Pang JL, Sun B (2011) Sedimentary facies of the Middle-Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin and breakthrough in petroleum exploration. J Palaeogeogr 13:443–455

    Google Scholar 

  10. Dixon JB (1989) Kaolinite and serpentine group of minerals. In: Dixon JB, Weed SB (eds) Minerals in soil environments. Soils Science Society of America Inc, (SSSA), Madison, pp 467–525

    Google Scholar 

  11. Fisher JB, Boles JR (1990) Water-rock interaction in Tertiary sandstone, San Joaquin basin, California, U.S.A.: diagenetic controls on water composition. Chem Geol 82:83–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Folk RL, Andrews PB, Lewis DW (1970) Detrital sedimentary rock classification and nomenclature for use in New Zealand. N Z J Geol Geophys 13:937–968

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Giles MR, Stevenson S, Martin SV, Cannon SJC., Hamilton PJ, Marshall JD, Samways GM (1992) The reservoir properties and diagenesis of the Brent Group: a regional perspective. In: Morton AC, Haszeldine RS, Giles MR, Brown S (Eds.), Geology of the Brent Group, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 61. 289–327

  14. Giles MR, Indrelid SL, Beynon GV, Amthor J (2000) The origin of large-scale quartz cementation: evidence from large data sets and coupled heat-fluid mass transport modeling. In: Worden, R., Morad, S. (Eds.) Quartz cementation in sandstones. Int Assoc Sedimentol Spec Publ, 29, 21–38

  15. Gluyas JG, Robinson AG, Emery D, Grant SM, Oxtoby NH (1993) The link between petroleum emplacement and sandstone cementation. In: Parker JR (ed) Petroleum geology of NW-Europe. Geological Society, London, pp 1395–1402

    Google Scholar 

  16. He YL, Liu B, Qin S (2010) Study on the dolomitization and dolostone genesis. Acta Sci Nat Univ Pekin 46:1010–1020

    Google Scholar 

  17. Huang SJ, Qing HR, Hu ZW, Zou ML, Feng WL, Wang CM, Gao XY, Wang QD (2007) Closed-system dolomitization and the significance for petroleum and economic geology: an example from Feixianguan carbonates, Triassic, NE Sichuan basin of China. Acta Petrol Sin 23:2955–2962

    Google Scholar 

  18. Huang KK, Huang SJ, Tong HP, Liu LH (2009) Thermodynamic calculation of feldspar dissolution and its significance on research of clastic reservoir. Geol Bull China 28:474–482

    Google Scholar 

  19. Jia CZ, Zou CN, Li JZ (2012) Assessment criteria, main types basic features and resource prospects of the tight oil in China. Acta Pet Sin 33:343–350

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kima JC, Leea YI, Hisadab K (2007) Depositional and compositional controls on sandstone diagenesis, the Tetori Group (Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), central Japan. Sediment Geol 195:183–202

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Lai J, Wang GW, Huang LX, Li WL, Ran Y, Wang D, Zhou ZL, Chen J (2015) Brittleness index estimation in a tight shaly sandstone reservoir using well logs. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 27:1536–1545

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Lai J, Wang G, Ran Y, Zhou Z, Cui Y (2016) Impact of diagenesis on the reservoir quality of tight oil sandstones: the case of Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation Chang 7 oil layers in Ordos Basin, China. J Pet Sci Eng 145:54–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Lee YI, Boles JR (1996) Depositional control on carbonate cement in the San Joaquin basin, California. In: Crossey LJ, Loucks R, Totten MW (Eds.) Siliciclastic diagenesis and fluid flow: concepts and applications. SEPM Special Publication, 55, 13–22

  24. Lee JI, Lee YI (1998) Feldspar albitization in Cretaceous nonmarine mudrocks, Gyeongsang Basin, Korea. Sedimentology 45:745–754

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Li H, Guo H, Yang Z, Wang X (2015a) Tight oil occurrence space of Triassic Chang 7 Member in Northern Shaanxi Area, Ordos Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 42:434–438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Li ZX, Qu XF, Liu WT, Lei QH, Sun HL, He YA (2015b) Development modes of Triassic Yanchang Formation Chang 7 Member tight oil in Ordos Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 42:241–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Liu G, Huang Z, Chen F, Jiang Z, Gao X, Li T, Chen L, Xia L, Han W (2016) Reservoir characterization of Chang 7 member shale: a case study of lacustrine shale in the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China ☆. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 34:458–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Luo JL, Liu XH, Lin T (2006) Impact of diagenesis and hydrocarbon emplacement on sandstone reservoir quality of the Yanchang Formation (Upper Triassic) in the Ordos Basin. Acta Geol Sin 80:654–673

    Google Scholar 

  29. Marchand AME, Haszeldine RS, Macaulay CI, Swennen R, Fallick AE (2000) Quartz cementation inhibited by crestal oil charge: miller deep water sandstone, UK North Sea. Clay Miner 35:205–214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Mount JF, Cohen AS (1984) Petrology and geochemistry of rhizoliths from Pliocene-Pleistocene fluvial and marginal lacustrine deposits, east Lake Turkana, Kenya. J Sediment Petrol 54:263–275

    Google Scholar 

  31. Murray HH (1988) Kaolin minerals: their genesis and occurrences. In: Bailey, S.W. (Ed.), . Hydrous phyllosilicates (exclusive of micas) Mineralogical Society of America. Rev Mineral 19:67–89

    Google Scholar 

  32. Remy RR (1994) Porosity reduction and major controls on diagenesis of Cretaceous-Paleocene volcaniclastic and arkosic sandstone, Middle Park basin, Colorado. J Sediment Res 64:797–806

    Google Scholar 

  33. Sorby HC (1880) On the structure and origin of non-calcareous stratified rocks. Q J Geol Soc 37:463–466

    Google Scholar 

  34. Sun ZX, Sun ZL, Lu HJ, Yin XJ (2010) Characteristics of carbonate cements in sandstone reservoirs: a case from Yanchang Formation, middle and southern Ordos Basin, China. Pet Explor Dev 37:543–550

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Sur KH, Lee YI, Hisada K (2002) Diagenesis of the Lower Cretaceous Kanmon Group, SW Japan. J Asian Earth Sci 20:921–935

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Usdowski E (1994) Synthesis of dolomite and geochemical implications. In: Purser BM, Zenger DE (eds) Dolomites: a volume in honor of dolomites. International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publication, Oxford, Blackwell, pp 345–360

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  37. Wang F, Tian JC, Fan LY, Chen R, Qiu JL (2010) Evolution of sedimentary fillings in Triassic Yanchang Formation and its response to Indosinian movement in Ordos Basin. Nat Gas Geosci 21:882–889

    Google Scholar 

  38. Wang ML, Zhang SA, Zhang FD, Liu YT, Guan H, Li J, Shao LY, Yang S, She YQ (2015) Quantitative research on tight oil microscopic state of Chang 7 Member of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 42:827–832

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Worden RH, Burley SD (2003) Sandstone diagenesis: the evolution of sand to stone. In: Burley SD, Worden RH (eds) Sandstone diagenesis: recent and ancient. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., International Association of Sedimentologists Series, vol 4, pp 3–44

  40. Worden RH, Morad S (2000) Quartz cementation in oil field sandstones: a review of the key controversies. In: Worden RH, Morad S (Eds.) Quartz cementation in sandstones International Association of Sedimentologists, Special Publication, 29. 1–20

  41. Xi SL, Li WH, Li RX (2008) Hydrocarbon generation and reservoir formation: a case from Chang 7 source rock in Majiatan area, west margin of Ordos Basin. Pet Explor Dev 35:657–663

    Google Scholar 

  42. Yang JJ (2002) Tectonic evolution and oil gas reservoirs distribution in Ordos Basin [M]. Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing, pp 130–181

    Google Scholar 

  43. Yang H, Zhang WZ (2005) Leading effect of the seventh member high-quality source rock of Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin during the enrichment of low-penetrating oil-gas accumulation: geology and geochemistry. Geochimica 34:147–154

    Google Scholar 

  44. Yang Y, Li W, Ma L (2005) Tectonic and stratigraphic controls of hydrocarbon systems in the Ordos basin: A multicycle cratonic basin in Central China. AAPG Bull 89:255–269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Yuan XJ, Lin SH, Liu Q, Yao JL, Wang L, Guo H, Deng XQ, Cheng DW (2015) Lacustrine fine-grained sedimentary features and organic-rich shale distribution pattern: a case study of Chang 7 Member of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Ordos Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 42:37–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Zhang YQ, Liao CZ (2006) Transition of the late Mesozoic - Cenozoic tectonic regimes and modification of the Ordos basin. Geol China 33:28–40

    Google Scholar 

  47. Zhang XF, Hu WX, Zhang JT (2006a) Critical problems for dolomite formation and dolomitization models. Geol Sci Technol Inf 25:32–40

    Google Scholar 

  48. Zhang WZ, Yang H, Li JF, Ma J (2006b) Leading effect of high-class source rock of Chang 7 in Ordos Basin on enrichment of low permeability oil-gas accumulation-hydrocarbon generation and expulsion mechanism. Pet Explor Dev 33:289–293

    Google Scholar 

  49. Zhang WZ, Yang H, Yang YH, Kong QF, Wu K (2008) Petrology and geochemistry and development environment of Yanchang Formation Chang-7 high quality source rocks in Ordos Basin. Geochimica 37:59–64

    Google Scholar 

  50. Zhang JP, Ge HP, Qi BW (2009) Characteristics of authigenic kaolinite in sandstones of Xihu Sag and its impact on reservoir physical properties. Offshore Oil 29:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  51. Zhao H, Ning Z, Zhao T, Zhang R, Wang Q (2016) Effects of mineralogy on petrophysical properties and permeability estimation of the Upper Triassic Yanchang tight oil sandstones in Ordos Basin, Northern China. Fuel 186:328–338

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Zhong DK, Zhu XM, Li SJ, Xie N (2007) Influence of early carbonate cementation on the evolution of sandstones: a case study from Silurian sandstones of Manjiaer depression, Tarim basin. Acta Sedimentol Sin 25:885–890

    Google Scholar 

  53. Zhong DK, Zhu HH, Sun HT, Cai C, Yao JL, Liu XY, Deng XQ, Luo AX (2013) Diagenesis and porosity evolution of sandstones in Longdong area, Ordos Basin. Earth Sci Front 20:061–068

    Google Scholar 

  54. Zhou, Y., Ji, Y., Xu, L., Che, S., Niu, X., Wan, L., Zhou, Y., Li, Z., and You, Y., 2016a, Controls on reservoir heterogeneity of tight sand oil reservoirs in Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in Longdong area, southwest Ordos Basin, China: implications for reservoir quality prediction and oil accumulation: Marine and Petroleum Geology.

  55. Zhou Y, Ji Y, Zhang S, Wan L (2016b) Controls on reservoir quality of Lower Cretaceous tight sandstones in the Laiyang Sag, Jiaolai Basin, Eastern China: Integrated sedimentologic, diagenetic and microfracturing data. Mar Pet Geol 76:26–50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Zhu H, Zhong D, Yao J, Sun H, Niu X, Liang X, You Y, Li X (2015a) Alkaline diagenesis and its effects on reservoir porosity: a case study of Upper Triassic Chang 7 Member tight sandstone in Ordos Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 42:56–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Zhu HH, Zhong DK, Yao JL, Sun HT, Niu XB, Liang XW, You Y, Li X (2015b) Alkaline diagenesis and its effects on reservoir porosity: a case study of Upper Triassic Chang 7 Member tight sandstone in Ordos Basin, NW China. Pet Explor Dev 42:56–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Zou CN, Zhang GS, Yang Z, Tao SZ, Hou LH, Zhu RK, Yuan XJ, Ran QQ, Li DH, Wang ZP (2013) Concepts, characteristics, potential and technology of unconventional hydrocarbons: on unconventional petroleum geology. Pet Explor Dev 40:413–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS) for the Student Grant for a part of experiments of this work. And the other materials and data were supported by a research project of PCOC.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yunlong Zhang or Zhidong Bao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, Y., Bao, Z., Zhao, Y. et al. Diagenesis and its controls on reservoir properties and hydrocarbon potential in tight sandstone: a case study from the Upper Triassic Chang 7 oil group of Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China. Arab J Geosci 10, 234 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-017-3023-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Diagenesis
  • Physical properties
  • Tight sandstone
  • Hydrocarbon potential
  • Ordos Basin