A new approach for forest fire risk modeling using fuzzy AHP and GIS in Hyrcanian forests of Iran

  • Saeedeh Eskandari
Original Paper


The presented research was performed in order to model the fire risk in a part of Hyrcanian forests of Iran. The fuzzy sets integrated with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in a decision-making algorithm using geographic information system (GIS) was used to model the fire risk in the study area. The used factors included four major criteria (topographic, biologic, climatic, and human factors) and their 17 sub-criteria. Fuzzy AHP method was used for estimating the importance (weight) of the effective factors in forest fire. Based on this modeling method, the expert ideas were used to express the relative importance and priority of the major criteria and sub-criteria in forest fire risk in the study area. The expert ideas mean was analyzed based on fuzzy extent analysis. Then, the fuzzy weights of criteria and sub-criteria were obtained. The major criteria models and fire risk model were presented based on these fuzzy weights. On the other hand, the spatial data of 17 sub-criteria were provided and organized in GIS to obtain the sub-criteria maps. Each sub-criterion map was converted to raster format and it was reclassified based on risk of its classes to fire occurrence. Then, all sub-criteria maps were converted to fuzzy format using fuzzy membership function in GIS. The fuzzy map of each major criterion (topographic, biologic, climatic, and human criteria) was obtained by weighted overlay of its sub-criteria fuzzy maps considering to major criterion model in GIS. Finally, the fuzzy map of fire risk was obtained by weighted overlay of major criteria fuzzy maps considering to fire risk model in GIS. The actual fire map was used for validation of fire risk model and map. The results showed that the fuzzy estimated weights of human, biologic, climatic, and topographic criteria in fire risk were 0.301, 0.2595, 0.2315, and 0.208, respectively. The results obtained from the fire risk map showed that 38.74% of the study area has very high and high risk for fire occurrence. Results of validation of the fire risk map showed that 80% of the actual fires were located in the very high and high risk areas in fire risk map. It can show the acceptable accuracy of the fire risk model and map obtained from fuzzy AHP in this study. The obtained fire risk map can be used as a decision support system for predicting of the future fires in the study area.


Fire risk modeling Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) Geographic information system (GIS) District Three of Neka-Zalemroud (DTNZ) forests 


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Research DivisionResearch Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)TehranIran

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