Groundwater potential mapping using remote sensing and GIS-based, in Halabja City, Kurdistan, Iraq

Abstract

Management of groundwater resources requires modern techniques and scientific principles. Geographic information system (GIS)-based multi-criteria and analytic hierarchy approaches are implemented to identify promising areas for groundwater potential in Halabja city, Kurdistan region. A thematic map of each input factor was produced, derived from various sources including maps of geology, structure, and hydrogeology. The input layers were ranked according to their relative importance in controlling groundwater potential. Each factor is divided into classes based on hydrogeological properties. The classes then are weighted according to their relative importance to groundwater potential. The groundwater potential analysis reveals three distinct zones representing high, moderate, and low groundwater potential in the study area. The delineated groundwater potential map is finally verified using the available extraction rates of 95 wells. Results of such verifications proved that the groundwater potential zones identified by GIS and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) techniques are reliable and representative.

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Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge University of Sulaimani School of Science and Geology department and Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research (KISSR) for their support. The authors also acknowledge the Sulaimani irrigation directorate/watershed management’s department, especially Mr. Ari I. Amin, for providing reports and information about the surface water in the area of interest and directorates of Darbandikhan Dam, Sulaimani, and Bakrajo meteorological stations for providing climate information of the area of interest. Great appreciation goes to Dr. Alaa M. Atiaa and Mr. Arsalan A. Al-Jaf for their guidance and valuable comments.

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Correspondence to Lanja Farooq Rauf.

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Al-Manmi, D.A.M., Rauf, L.F. Groundwater potential mapping using remote sensing and GIS-based, in Halabja City, Kurdistan, Iraq. Arab J Geosci 9, 357 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-016-2385-y

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Keywords

  • Potential map
  • GIS
  • AHP
  • Groundwater management
  • Halabja
  • Kurdistan