Skip to main content

Spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall erosivity factor in Northern Algeria

Abstract

Erosion, sediment transport, and deposition result in agricultural soil degradation, dam siltation, and significant and costly damage. In Algeria, despite a decrease in total rainfall, especially in the central and western parts of the country, dam siltation and erosion are on the rise according to recent studies by the National Agency of Dams and Transfers. Developing a map of the spatial variation of rainfall erosivity will provide a powerful tool for land and dam managers. Erosivity can be quantified using the R factor from the Universal Soil Loss Equation. The purpose of this work is to develop a model for estimating rain erosivity based on the modified Fournier index (MFI), longitude, altitude, and mean maximum daily rainfall, and then to produce a map of the spatial distribution of erosivity in Northern Algeria. The R factor reaches a maximum value of roughly 905 MJ mm ha−1 year−1 in the Jijel area of Mediterranean Eastern Algeria and a minimum value of 37 MJ mm ha−1 year−1 in the southern portion of the study area. The study of the temporal evolution of annual rainfall erosivity index (R) and I max over 30 min showed that R recorded a negative trend and I max recorded no trend.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  • Angulo-Martinez M, Begueria S (2012) Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 19552006. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 9(62856309):2012. doi:10.5194/hessd-9-6285

    Google Scholar 

  • Arabi M, Bourougaa L, Kedaid OEK (2007) Intensi_cation de lagriculture et rduction des risques érosifs en milieu semi aride Algérien. Actes des JSIRAUF, Hanoi, 6-9 novembre

  • Arnoldus HMJ (1977) Prédiction des pertes de terres par érosion en nappe et en griffe. Aménagement des bassins versants, Bulletin FAO, pp. 121-149

  • Ben Cheikha L, Gueddari M (2008) Le bassin versant de Jannet (Tunisie): évaluation des risques d’érosion hydriques. Mapper Monde 90

  • Benchetrit M (1972) L’érosion actuelle et ses conséquences sur l’aménagement en Algérie. P.U.F, Paris, p 216

    Google Scholar 

  • Bolinne A, Lauant A, Rosseau P, Pauwels JM, Gabriels D, Aeltermann J (1980) Provisional rain erosivity map of Belgium. In: DeBoodt M, Gabriels D (eds) Assessment of erosion. Wiley, Chichester, pp 111–120

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown LC, Foster GR (1987) Storm erosivity using idealized intensity distributions. Trans Asae 30:379386

    Google Scholar 

  • Buishand TA (1982) Some methods for testing the homogeneity of rainfall records. J Hydrol 58:11–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Capolongo D, Diodato N, Mannaerts C, Piccarreta M, Strobl RO (2008) Analyzing temporal changes in climate erosivity using a simplified rainfall erosivity model in Basilicata (southern Italy). J Hydrol 356:119–130. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.04.002,(2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen MJ, Shepherd KD, Walsh MG (2005) Empirical formulation of the universal soil loss equation for erosion risk assessment in a tropical watershed. Geoderma 124:235252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coutinho MA, Tomas PP (1994) Comparison of Fournier with Wischmeier rainfall erosivity indices. In: Rickson RJ (ed) Conservation Soil Resources. European Perspectives. CAB International, Wallingford

    Google Scholar 

  • Da Silva AM (2004) Rainfall erosivity map for Brazil. Catena 57(3):251–259

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daly C, Gibson WP, Taylor GH, Johnson GL, Pasteris P (2002) A knowledge based approach to the statistical mapping of climate. Clim Res 22:99–113. doi:10.3354/cr022099

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • D'Asaro F, Santoro M (1983) Aggressivit à dellapioggianello studio del l'erosioneidricadelterritoriosiciliano. CNR Progettofinalizzato “Conservazione del Suolo” - Sottoprogetto “Dinamicadeiversanti”; pubblicazione 130; pubblicazione 164 del l'Istituto di Idraulica del l'Università di Palermo

  • De Luis M, Gonzalez JC, Longares LA (2010) Is rainfall erosivity increasing in the Mediterranean Iberian peninsula? Land Degrad Dev 21:139–144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diodato N (2004) Estimating RUSLE’s rainfall factor in the part of Italy with a Mediterranean rainfall regime. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss Copernicus Publ 8(1):103–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diodato N (2005) Geostatistical uncertainty modelling for the environmental hazard assessment during single erosive rainstorm events. Environ Monit Assess 105:2542

    Google Scholar 

  • Diodato N, Bellocchi G (2007) 2007: Estimating monthly (R) USLE climate input in a Mediterranean region using limited data. J Hydrol 345:224236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diodato N, Bellocchi G (2010) MedREM, a rainfall erosivity model for the Mediterranean region. J Hydrol 387:119–127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dumas D (1998) Karsts du Zagros (Iran) : Bilans hydrologiques et évolution géomorphologique. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Strasbourg, p 250

  • DVWK (1990) Grundlagen der Verdunstungsermittlung und Erosivitt von Niederschlgen. Deutscher Verb and fr Wasser wirtschaft und Kulturbau (eds) Parey, Hamburg

  • Ferro V, Giordano G, Iovino M (1991) Iso-erosivity and erosion risk map for Sicily. Hydrological Sciences Journal- Journal-des Sciences Hydrologiques 36,6

  • Foster GR, McCool DK, Renard KG, Moldenhauer WC (1981) Conversion of the universal soil loss equation to SI metric units. J Soil Water Conserv 36(6):355–359

    Google Scholar 

  • Fournier F (1960) Climat et érosion - la relation entre l’érosion du sol par l’eau et les précipitations atmosphériques. P.U.F, Paris, p 201

    Google Scholar 

  • Haddad MN (2013) Investigating the rainfall erosivity index using geostatistics. Int J Agron Plant Prod Vol 4(11):2816–2821

    Google Scholar 

  • Hashim B, Yu GM, Eusof Z (2001) Estimating the R-factor with limited rainfall data: a case study from Peninsular Malaysia. J Soil Water Conserv 56(2):101–105

    Google Scholar 

  • Heusch B (1970) Estimation et controle de l’érosion hydraulique. Soc ScPhys Maroc 1970 ; N spécial : 41-54

  • IME (2010) Envasement et gestion durable des barrages. Conception et gestion durable des barrages en Méditerranée. 2me Atelier Régional 13 et 14 décembre

  • Kalman R (1970) Ruissellement et érosion en nappe (Expérimentation au simulateur de pluie). Ann RechercheForestière du Maroc 12:117, Rabat

    Google Scholar 

  • Khorsandi N, Mahdian MH, Pazira E, Nikkami D, Chamheidar H (2012) Comparison of different interpolation methods for investigating spatial variability of rainfall erosivity index. Pol J Environ Stud 21(6):1659–1666

    Google Scholar 

  • Kowal JM, Kassam AH (1976) Energy load and instantaneous intensity of rainstorms at Samaru Nigeria. Trop Agric 53:185197

    Google Scholar 

  • Laborde JP (1993) Cartes pluviométrique de l’Algérie du Nord l’échelle du 1/500 000, notice explicative. Agence Nationale des Ressources Hydrauliques, projet NUD/ALG/88/021

  • Langbein WB, Schumm SA (1958) Yield of sediment in relation to mean annual precipitation. Trans Ame Geophys Union 39:1076–1084

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le Bissonnais Y, Thorette J, Bardet C (2002) Daroussin J L’érosion hydrique des sols en France, INRA, IFEN, p 106

  • Lee MH, Lin HH (2015) Evaluation of annual rainfall erosivity index based on daily, monthly, and annual precipitation data of rainfall station network in Southern Taiwan. Int J Distr Sensor Net. Volume 2015, Article ID 214708, doi.org/10. 1155/2015/214708

  • Lo A, El-Swaify SA, Dangler EW, Shinshiro L (1985) Effectiveness of EI30 as an erosivity index in Hawaii. In: El-Swaify SA, Moldenhauerand WC, Lo A (eds) So/7 Erosion and Conservation. Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, pp 384–392

    Google Scholar 

  • Loureiro ND, Coutinho MD (2001) A new procedure to estimate the RUSLE EI30 index, based on monthly rainfall data and applied to the Algarve region, Portugal. J Hydrol 250:1218

    Google Scholar 

  • Mati BM, Morgan RPC, Gichuki FN, Quinton JN, Brewer TR, Liniger HP (2000) Assessment of erosion hazard with the USLE and GIS: a case study of the Upper Ewaso Ngiro North basin of Kenya. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geo Inf 2(2):78–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mazour A (1991) Les facteurs de risque de l’érosion en nappe dans le bassin versant d’Isser (Tlemcen, Algérie). Huitième réunion du réseau d’érosion, Grenoble 12 et 13 septembre

  • Meddi M (1992) Hydro-pluviométrie et transport solide dans le bassin versant de l’Oued Mina, PhdThesis. University of Strasbourg, France, p 346

    Google Scholar 

  • Meddi M (1999) Etude du transport solide dans le bassin versant de l’Oued Ebda. ZeitschriftfrGeomorhologie N.F. 43, 2. Juin 1999:167–183

    Google Scholar 

  • Meddi M (2013) Sediment transport and rainfall erosivity evolution in twelve basins in Central and Western Algeria. J Urbain Environ Eng 7(2):253–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meddi M, Hubert P (2003) Impact of the modification of rainfall regime on water resources in Northwestern Algeria. Hydrology of the Mediterranean and semiarid Regions. IAHS publication No. 278 (In French) pp 1-7

  • Meddi M, Hubert P, Bendjoudi H (2002) Evolution du régime pluviométrique du Nord- Ouest de l’Algérie, Actes du colloque international sur l’eau dans le Bassin Méditerranéen. Ressources et développement Durable, Tunisie

    Google Scholar 

  • Meddi M, Meddi H, Toumi S, Mehaiguen M (2013) Regionalization of rainfall in North-West of Algeria. Geogr Tech 1:56–69

    Google Scholar 

  • Meddour-Sahar O, Bouisset C, Derridj D (2013) La gestion du risque incendie de forêt en Algérie : des mesures curatives ou préventives ?.IVme Conférence Internationale sur les Stratégies de Prévention des Incendies dans les forêts d’Europe du Sud. 7-9 Janvier 2013, Bordeaux, France

    Google Scholar 

  • Men M, Yu Z, Xu H (2008) Study on the spatial pattern of rainfall erosivity based on geostatistics in Hebei Province. China Front Agric China 2:281–289

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meusburger K, Stee LA, Panagos P, Montanarella L, Alewell C (2012) Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16:167–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morgan RPC (1996) Soil Erosion and Conservation. Longman Malaysia, reprint of second Edition

  • Morsli B, Habi M, Meddi M (2013) Dynamique de l’érosion en zone méditerranée Algriènne : facteurs explicatifs de variation du ruissellement et de l’érosion sous différentes occupations du sol. Revue des sciences de l'eau. J Water Sci 26(2):89–105

    Google Scholar 

  • Nash JE (1969) A course of lectures on parametric or analytical hydrologic. Great Laies Institute. University of Toronto Pr 38: Lecture 12

  • Nash JE, Sutcliffe J (1970) River ow forecasting through conceptual model. Part I: a discussion of principles. J Hydrol 10:282–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Natalia H (2005) Spatial modeling of soil erosion potential in a tropical watershed of the Colombian Andes. Catena 63(1):85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parajka J, Merz R, Blschl G (2005) A comparison of regionalization methods for catchment model parameters. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 9:157–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pepin Y, Hammouda N (2012) Variabilité de l’intensité des pluies dans la région de Tanger sur une période de trente ans (1980-2010). Rev Marc Sci Agron Vt.2012 1 :(23-27)

  • Pettitt AN (1979) A non-parametric approach to the change-point problem. Appl Statist 28:126–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Remini B, et Bensa AD (2011) Envasement du barrage de Sidi M’Hamed Ben Aouda. Comité scientifique du projet SIGMED, Institut Scientifique de l’Université Mohamed V-Agdal, Rabat

  • Remini B, Hallouche W (2007) Studying sediment. Revue Int Water Power Dam Constr Octobre, 42-45

  • Renard KG, Freimund JR (1994) Using monthly precipitation data to estimate the R factor in the revised USLE. J Hydrol 157:287306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Renard KG, Foster GR, Weesies GA, McCool DK, Yoder DC (1997) Predicting soil erosion by water a guide to conservation planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Handbook No. 703. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Roose E (1977) Application of the universal soil loss equation of Wischmeier and Smith in West Africa. Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, Iowa, pp 50–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Roose AM, Brahamia K, Chebbani R, Mazour M, Et Morsli B (1993) Erosion en nappe et ruissellement en montagne méditerranéenne. Réduction des risques érosifs et intensification de la production agricole par GCES. Cahiers ORSTOM, sriePdologie 28:289–308

    Google Scholar 

  • Roose E, Sabir M, Arabi M, Morsli B, Mazour M (2012) Soixante années de recherches en coopération sur l'érosion hydrique et la lutte antiérosive au Maghreb. Physio-Go [Enligne], Volume 6, (2012). doi: 10.4000/physio-geo.2319

  • Seltzer P (1946) Le climat de l'Algérie. Institut de métorologie et de physique du globe, Université d'Alger, p 219

  • Torri D, Borselli L, Guzzetti F, Calzolari MC, Bazzo P, Ungaro F, Bartolini D, SalvadorSanchis MP (2006) Italy. In: Boardman J, Poesen J (eds) Soil erosion in Europe. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester, United Kingdom, p 245261

    Google Scholar 

  • Touabia B (1999) Approche quantitative de l'érosion hydrique à différentes échelles spatiales: bassin versant de l'Oued Mina. Hydroiogical Sci J- J-des Sci Hydrol 44(6)

  • Toumi S, Meddi M, Mah G, Brou YT (2013) Cartographie de l’érosion dans le bassin versant de l’Oued Mina en Algérie par télédétection et SIG. Hydrol Sci J 58(7):15421558. doi:10.1080/02626667.2013.824088

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ufoegbune GC, Bello NJ, Ojekunle ZO, Orunkoye AR, Eruola AO, Amori AA (2011) Rainfall erosivity pattern of Ogun river basin area (Nigeria) using modified Fournier index. Eur Water 35:23–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Usda ARS (2008) (Agricultural Research Service): Draft Science Documentation, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2. USDA Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Vallebona C, Pellegrino E, Frumento P, Bonari E (2014) Temporal trends in extreme rainfall intensity and erosivity in the Mediterranean region: a case study in southern Tuscany. Italy Clim Chang. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1287-9

    Google Scholar 

  • Wischmeier WH (1959) Un index d’érosion hydrique pour une quation universelle de perte en terre, soil science society of Americaproceedings. Traduit Par AJ Vignes Ingénieur Des Travaux Agricoles 23:246–249

    Google Scholar 

  • Wischmeier WH, Smith DD (1978) Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses, Agric. Hbk 537.U.S.D.A. Sci. and Educ. Admin, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Wischmeier WH, Smith DD, Uhland RE (1958) Evaluation of factors in soil loss equation. Agr Eng ASAE 39(8):458–464, 474

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang D, Kanae S, Oki T, Koike T, Musiake K (2003) Global potential soil erosion with reference to land use and climate change. Hydrol Proc 17:29132928

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu B, Rosewell CJ (1996) A robust estimator of the R factor for the universal soil loss equation. Trans Am ReceivSeodc 1A6g Sriecpt Eemngbresr 3199(927):5ac5c9e–p5t6e1d

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang YQ, Chiew FHS (2009) Evaluation of regionalization methods for predicting runoff in ungauged catchments in southeast Australia. 18th world IMACS/MODISM Congress, Cairs, Australia

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohamed Meddi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Meddi, M., Toumi, S. & Assani, A.A. Spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall erosivity factor in Northern Algeria. Arab J Geosci 9, 282 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2303-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2303-8

Keywords

  • Rainfall erosivity
  • Wischmeier R factor
  • Erosion
  • Model
  • Map
  • Northern Algeria