Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Microfacies analysis, depositional environment, and diagenesis of the Asmari–Jahrum reservoir in Gulkhari oil field, Zagros basin, SW Iran

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Arabian Journal of Geosciences Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The Asmari and Jahrum formations are studied in terms of microfacies, depositional environment, and diagenesis in the Gulkhari oil field based on data provided from well nos. 2, 10, and 11. Petrography, fauna content, biofacies, and depositional textures lead to recognition of 21 carbonate microfacies and 3 non-carbonate lithofacies which were deposited in four depositional environments including tidal flat, lagoon, bar, and open marine on a homoclinal ramp. Dissolution, bioturbation, cementation, neomorphism, silisification, micritization, physical compaction, and dolomitization affected on the Asmari and Jahrum formations, of which cementation, dolomitization, and dissolution are most prominent. Evidently, cementation reduced reservoir quality whereas dolomitization, dissolution, and burrowing, promoted porosity development of the reservoir. Diagenetic processes points toward uplift and a set of syngenetic processes on seafloor and epigenetic processes during shallow to deep burial. Consequently, the microfacies with improper reservoir quality were subjected to subsequent porosity development through diagenetic processes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Plate 1
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Adabi MH (2002) Petrography and geochemical criteria for recognition of unaltered cold water and diagenetically altered Neoproterozoic dolomite, western Tasmania, Australia: 16th Australian Geology. Conv., Australia (abst.), p. 350

  • Aghanabati A (2004) Geology of Iran, treatise on the geology of Iran, Geological Survey of Iran

  • Ahmad AHM, Bhat GMM, Azim Khan H (2006) Depositional environments and diagenesis of the Kuldhar and Keera Dome carbonates (Late Bathonian–Early Callovian) of Western India. J Asian Earth Sci 27:765–778

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ala MA (1982) Chronology of trap formation and migration of hydrocarbon in Zagros sector of southwest Iran. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 66:1536–1542

    Google Scholar 

  • Allahkarampour M, Seyrafian A, Vaziri-Moghaddam H (2010) The Asmari Fm., north of the Gachsaran (Dill anticline), southwest Iran: facies analysis, depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy. Carbonates Evaporates 25:145–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alsharhan AS, Kendall CG (2003) Holocene coastal carbonates and evaporates of the southern Persian Gulf and their ancient analogues. Earth Sci Rev 61(3–4):191–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amirshahkarami M, Vaziri- Moghaddam H, Taheri A (2007) Sedimentary facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Fm. at Chaman-Bolbol, Zagros Basin, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences: 947–959

  • Barattolo F, Bassi D, Romero R (2007) Upper Eocene larger foraminifera-coralline algal facies from the Klokova Mountain (south continental Greece). Facies 53:361–375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bassi D, Hottinger L, Nebelsick H (2007) Large foraminifera from the Upper Oligocene of the Venetian area, Northeast Italy. Palaeontol 50:845–868

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bernaous JM, Vanneau A, Caus E (2002) Carbonate platform sequence stratigraphy in a rapidly subsiding area: the late Barremian–Early Aptian of the Organya Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, Sed. Geol 159:177–201

    Google Scholar 

  • Brandano M, Corda L (2002) Nutrients, sea level and tectonics: constrains for the facies architecture of a Miocene carbonate ramp in central Italy. Terra Nov. 14:257–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brandano M, Frezza V, Tomassetti L, Pedly M (2009) Facies analysis and Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Late Oligocene Attarad Member (Lower Coralline Limestone Formation), Malta. Sedimentology 56:1138–1158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brigaud B, Durlet C, Deconinck JF, Vincent B, Puceat E (2009) Facies and climate/ environmental changes recorded on a carbonate ramp: a sedimentological and geochemical approach on Middle Jurassic carbonates (Paris Basin, France). Sediment Geol 222:181–206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buxton MWN, Pedley HM (1989) A standardized model for Tethyan Tertiary carbonates ramps. Geol Soc London 149:746–748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Choquette PW, James NP (1990) Limestone—the burial diagenetic environment, in: Mcllreath, I.A. and Morrow, D.W. (eds.) Diagenesis, Geoscience Canada Reprint Series 4:75–112

  • Corda L, Brandano M (2003) Aphotic zone carbonate production on a Miocene ramp, central Apennines, Italy. Sediment Geol 161(1–2):55–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cosovic V, Drobne K (2004) Paleoenvironmental model for Eocene foraminiferal limestone of the Adriatic carbonate platform. Facies 50:61–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dickson JAD (1965) A modified staining technique for carbonate in thin section. Nature 205:587

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dunham RJ (1962) Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture, In: Classification of carbonate rocks (Ed. By W.E.Ham), Mem. # 1 AAPG: 108–121

  • Ehrenberg SN, Pickard NAH, Laursen GV, Monibi S, Mossadegh ZK, Svana TA, Aqrawi AAM, McArthur JM, Thirlwall MF (2007) Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Asmari Fm. (Oligocene–Lower Miocene), SW Iran. JP G 30:107–128

    Google Scholar 

  • Embry AF, Klovan JE (1971) A Late Devonian reef tract on Northeastern Banks Island, NWT. Can Pet Geol Bull 19:730–781

    Google Scholar 

  • Flugel E (2010) Microfacies of carbonate rocks, analysis interpretation and application. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedman GM (1965) Terminology of crystallization texture and fabric in sedimentary rocks. J S P 35:643–655

    Google Scholar 

  • Geel MT (2000) Recognition of stratigraphic sequences in carbonate platform and slope deposits, empirical model based on microfacies analysis of Paleogene deposits in south eastern Spain Paleo. Palaeo. Palaeo Paléo 155(3):211–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gregg JM, Shelton KL (1990) Dolomitization and dolomite neomorphism in the back reef facies of the Bonneterre and Davis formations Cambrian. Southeastern Missouri. J S P 60(4):549–562

    Google Scholar 

  • Haeri Ardakani O, Al-Aasm I, Coniglio M, Simon I (2013) Diagenetic evolution and associated mineralization in middle Devonian carbonates, southwestern Ontario, Canada. Bull Can Petrol Geol 61(1):41–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hallock P, Glenn EC (1986) Larger foraminifera: a tool for paleoenvironmental analysis of Cenozoic carbonate depositional facies. Palaios 1:55–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hakimzadeh S, Seyrafian A (2008) Late Oligocene-Early Miocene benthic foraminifera and biostratigraphy of the Asmari Fm., south, Yasuj, north-central Zagros basin, Iran. Carbonates Evaporites 23(1):1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hohenegger J (2000) Coenoclines of larger foraminifera. Micropaleontology 46(Supplement 1):127–151

    Google Scholar 

  • Hohenegger J, Yordanova E, Nakano Y, Tatzreiter F (1999) Habitats of larger foraminifera on the reef slope of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan. Mar Micropaleontol 36:109–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Homaei M (2006) Fluid units determinations based on multidiscipline methods, implication for petrophysic characteristics of Asmari- Jahrum reservoir, Gulkhari oil field, Rep. No. p. 5783, NISOC, Ahvaz

  • Hottinger L (1983) Processes determining the distribution of larger foraminifera in space and time. Utrecht Micropaleontol Bull 30:239–253

    Google Scholar 

  • Hottinger L (1997) Shallow benthic foraminiferal assemblages as signals for depth of their deposition and their limitation. Bull Soc Geol Fr 168(4):491–505

    Google Scholar 

  • James GA, Wynd JG (1965) Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement Area, AAPG. Bull 49(12):2182–2245

    Google Scholar 

  • Khatibi Mehr M, Moallemi SA (2009) A comparison between depositional history of Jahrum Fm. (Zagros) and Ziyarat Fm. (Alborz) based on benthonic foraminifera. Q J Geol Iran 9:87–102

    Google Scholar 

  • Langer MR, Hottinger L (2000) Biogeography of selected “larger” foraminifera. Micropaleontology 46(Supplement 1):105–126

    Google Scholar 

  • Lasemi Y (1995) Platform carbonate of the upper Jurassic Mozduran Fm. in the Kopet Dagh basin, NE Iran-facies, paleoenvironments and sequences. Sediment Geol 99:151–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laursen GV, Monibi S, Allan TL, Pickard NA, Hosseiney A, Vincent B, Hamon Y, Van-Buchem FSP, Moallemi A, Druillion G (2009) The Asmari Fm. revisited: changed stratigraphic allocation and new biozonation. First International Petroleum Conference & Exhibition, Shiraz, Iran

  • Mazzullo SJ (1992) Geochemical and neomorphism alteration of dolomite of dolomite: a review. Carbonate and Evaporite, V: pp. 21–37

  • Melim LA, Scholle PA (1995) The fore reef facies of the Permian Capitan Formation: the role of sediment supply versus sea-level changes. J S R B 65:107–119

    Google Scholar 

  • Moore CH (1989) Carbonate diagenesis and porosity, Development in Sedimentology, 46

  • Mirzaee Mahmoudabadi R, Afghah M (2009) Depositional environment, biostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy of Sachon and Jahrum formations in Shiraz area, Quarterly Journal of Applied Geology. Zahedan Islam Free Univ 5(1):59–75

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohseni H, Al-Aasm IS (2004) Tempestite deposits on a storm-influenced carbonate ramp: an example from the Pabdeh Formation (Paleogene), Zagros Basin, SW Iran. J Pet Geol 27(2):163–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mohseni H, Mohammadi R, Khodabakhsh S, Yarmohammadi A (2008) Depositional environment, facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of Asmari formation in Zagros Basin, SW Iran, The 33rd Inernational Geological Congress, Oslo, Norway

  • Mossadegh ZK, Haig DW, Allan T, Adabi MH, Sadeghi A (2009) Salinity changes during Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Asmari Fm. deposition, Zagros Mountains, Iran. Palaeo Palaeo Palaeo 272:17–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Motiei, H, (1995) Petroleum geology of the Zagros, treatise in the geology of Iran (two vol. in Persian), Geol. Survey of Iran, 1009 p

  • Mutti M, (1990) Sedimentology and diagenesis of carbonate/siliciclastic cycle, Yates Formation, Guadalupian, New Mexico. University of Wisconsin-Madison (Unpublished MSc. Thesis)

  • Nadjafi M, Mahboubi A, Moosavi Harami R, Mirzaee Mahmoodabadi R (2004) Depositional history and sequence stratigraphy of outcropping Tertiary carbonates in the Jahrum and Asmari formations, Shiraz (SW Iran). J Pet Geol 27(2):179–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nebelsick JH, Rasser M, Bassi D (2005) Facies dynamic in Eocene to Oligocene Circum Alpine carbonates. Facies 51:197–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pettijohn FJ (1975) Sedimentary rocks, 3rd edn. Harper & Co., New York, pp 427–433

    Google Scholar 

  • Pomar L (2001) Types of carbonate platforms: a genetic approach. Basin Res 13:313–334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qing H, Bosence DWJ, Rose PF (2001) Dolomitization by penesaline seawater in early Jurassic peritidal platform carbonates, Gibraltar, western Mediterranean. Sedimentology 48:153–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Racey A (1994) Biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeographic significance of Tertiary nummulitids (foraminifera) from northern Oman. In: Simmons MD (ed) Micropalaeontology and hydrocarbon exploration in the Middle East. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 343–370

    Google Scholar 

  • Ranjbaran M, Fayazi F, Al-Aasm IS (2007) Sedimentology, depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Fm. (Oligocene- Lower Miocene) Gachsaran Area, SW Iran. Carbonates Evaporites 22(2):135–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Renema W (2006) Large benthic foraminifera from the deep photic zone of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Mar Micropaleontol 58:73–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Romero J, Caus E, Rossel J (2002) A model for the palaeoenvironmental distribution of lager foraminifera based on Late Middle Eocene deposits on the margin of the south Pyrenean basin (SE Spain). Palaeo Palaeo Palaeo 179:43–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sadeghi R, Vaziri- Moghaddam H, Taheri A (2010) Microfacies and sedimentary environment of the Oligocene sequence (Asmari Fm.) in Fars sub-basin, Zagros Mountains, southwest Iran. Facies. Published online

  • Safaei J, Mosavi SC, Khojasteh Mehr M, Fouladi K, Mehrshad M (1998) Similation study of the Gulkhari oil field, Rep. No. p. 4766, NISOC, Ahvaz

  • Samankassou E, Tresch J, Strasser A (2005) Origin of peloids in Early Cretaceous deposits. Dorset, South England. Facies 51:264–273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seeling M, Emmerich A, Bechsta T, Zuhlke R (2005) Accommodation/sedimentation development and massive early marine cementation, Latemar vs. Concarena (Middle/Upper Triassic, Southern Alps). Sediment Geol 175:439–457

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seyrafian A (1998) Petrofacies analysis and depositional environment of the Jahrum Fm. (Eocene), South- Southwest of Burujen, Iran. Carbonates Evaporites 13:90–99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sibley DF, Gregg JM (1987) Classification of dolomite rock texture. JS P 57:967–975

    Google Scholar 

  • Sooltanian N, Seyrafian A, Vaziri- Moghaddam H (2011) Biostratigraphy and paleo-ecological implications in microfacies of the Asmari Fm. (Oligocene), Naura anticline (Interior Fars of the Zagros Basin), Iran. J. Carbonate and Evaporites. Published online

  • Tucker ME (1993) Carbonate diagenesis and sequence stratigraphy. In: Wright VP (Ed), Sedimentology Review, IAS Special Pub, #1, Blackwell, Oxford: 51–72

  • Tucker ME (2001) Sedimentary petrology Third Edition. Blackwell, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Vaziri-Moghaddam H (2002) Biofacies and sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene succession, at Hamzeh-Ali Area, North-Central Zagros, Iran. Carbonates Evaporites 17(1):60–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vaziri-Moghaddam H, Kimiagari M, Taheri A (2006) Depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Fm. in SW Iran, Lali area. Facies 52:41–51

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vaziri-Moghaddam H, Seyrafian A, Azizolah T, Motiei H (2010) Oligocene-Miocene ramp system (Asmari Fm.) in the NW of the Zagros basin, Iran: microfacies, Paleoenvironments and depositional sequence. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas 27(1):56–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Warren JK (1989) Sedimentology of Coorong dolomite in the Salt Creek region, South Australia. Carbonates Evaporates 32:175–199

    Google Scholar 

  • Warren J (2000) Dolomite: occurrences, evolution and economical important association. Earth Sci Rev 52:1–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson JL (1975) Carbonates facies in geologic history. Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Yazdani M, Raki AG (2001) Core information, Rep. No. p. 5965, NISOC, Ahvaz

  • Zakerzadeh, MR (1998) Lithofacies of the Jahrum Formation in the SW border of the Dezful Embayment and its stratigraphic correlation with the Fars area, unpub. Master thesis, Tarbiyat Moallem University (Tehran), 81 p.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank National Iranian Oil Co. (NIOC South) that provides the materials and permits the publication of the results of this research. We also extend our thanks to the Bu-Ali Sina University (Hamedan, Iran) where this research was performed. Our thanks are also due to the anonymous referees whose critical comments and discussions improved the quality of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hassan Mohseni.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mohseni, H., Hassanvand, V. & Homaie, M. Microfacies analysis, depositional environment, and diagenesis of the Asmari–Jahrum reservoir in Gulkhari oil field, Zagros basin, SW Iran. Arab J Geosci 9, 113 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2130-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2130-y

Keywords

Navigation