Soil and water 222Rn gas concentrations were observed over 8 months on a branch of the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), which is one of the world’s most seismically active areas. During such observations, 110 micro- and macro-earthquakes were recorded. The largest earthquake was the ML 5.4 İçme earthquake that occurred on 23 June 2011. Twenty days before this earthquake, anomalous increases were recorded in soil and water 222Rn gas as a time-series. The 222Rn anomalies recorded in the research area were likely precursors to the İçme earthquake. A few days before the earthquake, the soil and water 222Rn gas concentrations increased by approximately 70–99 %. Consequently, strong evidence suggests that the radon anomaly originated due to stress accumulation preceding the İçme earthquake.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Atkinson BK (1982) Subcritical crack propagation in rocks: theory, experimental results and applications. J Struct Geol 4:41–56
Bichard GF, Libby WF (1980) Soil radon concentration changes preceding and following four magnitude 4.2–4.7 earthquakes on the San Jacinto Fault in Southern California. J Geophys Res 85:3100–3106
Bochiolo M, Verdoya M, Chiozzi P, Pasquale V (2012) Radiometric surveying for the assessment of radiation dose and radon specific exhalation in underground environment. J Appl Geophys 83:100–106
Çolak S, Aksoy E, Koçyiğit A, İnceöz M (2011) The Palu-Uluova strike-slip basin in the East Anatolian Fault System, Turkey: its transition from the palaeotectonic to neotectonic stage. Turk J Earth Sci 21:547–570
Doğru M, Külahcı F (2004) Iso-radioactivity curves of the water of the Hazar Lake, Elazig, Turkey. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 260:557–562
Fu CC, Yang TF, Walia V, Liu TK, Lin SJ, Chen CH, Hou CS (2009) Variations of soil-gas composition around the active Chihshang Fault in a plate suture zone, eastern Taiwan. Radiat Meas 44:940–944
Ghosh D, Deb A, Sengupta R (2009) Anomalous radon emission as precursor of earthquake. J Appl Geophys 69:67–81
Khan HA, Qureshi AA (1994) Solid state nuclear track detection: a useful geological/geophysical tool. Nucl Geophys 8:1–37
King CY (1978) Radon emanation on San Andreas Fault. Nature 271:516–519
Külahcı F, Şen Z (2014) On the correction of spatial and statistical uncertainties in systematic measurements of 222Rn for earthquake prediction. Surv Geophys 35:449–478
Külahcı F, Özer AB, Doğru M (2006) Prediction of the radioactivity in Hazar Lake by Artificial Neural Networks. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 269:63–68
Külahcı F, İnceöz M, Doğru M, Aksoy E, Baykara O (2009) Artificial neural network model for earthquake prediction with radon monitoring. Appl Radiat Isot 67:212–219
Kumar A, Walia V, Singh S, Bajwa BS, Mahajan S, Dhar S, Yang TF (2012) Earthquake precursory studies at Amritsar Punjab, India using radon measurement techniques. Int J Phys Sci 7:5669–5677
Nadezhda KR (2012) Parameters of modeling radon transfer through soil and methods of their determination. J Appl Geophys 80:151–157
Papastefanou C (2007) Measuring radon in soil gas and groundwaters: a review. Ann Geophys 50:569–570
Porsani JL, Elis VR, Hiodo FY (2005) Geophysical investigations for the characterization of fractured rock aquifers in Itu, SE Brazil. J Appl Geophys 57:119–128
Pylon (2013) Pylon electronic. www.pyloneletronics.com. Accessed 15 January 2014
Richon P, Sabroux JC, Halbwachs M, Vandemeulebrouck J, Poussielgue N, Tabbagh J, Punongbayan R (2003) Radon anomaly in the soil of Taal volcano, the Philippines: a likely precursor of the M 7.1 Mindoro earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 30:1481
Rikitake T (1976) Earthquake prediction. Elsevier, Amsterdam
Schütze C, Vienken T, Werban U, Dietrich P, Finizola A, Leven C (2012) Joint application of geophysical methods and direct push-soil gas surveys for the improved delineation of buried fault zones. J Appl Geophys 82:129–136
Segovia N, Mena M, Pena P, Tamez E, Seidel JL, Monnin M, Valdes C (1999) Soil radon time series: surveys in seismic and volcanic areas. Radiat Meas 31:307–312
Seidel JL, Monnin M (1998) An automatic radon probe for earth science studies. J Appl Geophys 39:209–220
Singh M, Kumar M, Jain RK, Chatrath RP (1999) Radon in ground water related to seismic event. Radiat Meas 30:465–469
Steinitz G, Begin ZB, Gazit-Yaari N (2003) Statistically significant relation between radon flux and weak earthquakes in the Dead Sea rift valley. Geology 31:505–508
Ulomov VI, Mavashev BZ (1967) On forerunners of strong tectonic earthquakes. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 176:319–322
Ulomov VI, Zakharova AI, Ulomova NV (1967) Tashkent earthquake of April 26, 1966 and its aftershocks. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 177:567–570
Vinas R, Eff-Darwich A, Soler V, Martín-Luis MC, Quesada ML, De La Nuez J (2007) Processing of radon time series in underground environments: implications for volcanic surveillance in the island of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Spain Radiat Meas 42:101–115
Virk HS, Walia V (2001) Helium/Radon precursory signals of Charmoli earthquake. India Radiat Meas 34:379–384
Wakita H, Nakamura Y, Sano Y (1998) Short-term and intermediate-term geochemical precursors. Pure Appl Geophys 126:267–278
Worthy DEJ, Trivett NBA, Hopper JF (1994) Analysis of long-range transport events at alert, northwest-territories during the polar sunrise experiment. J Geophys Res Atmos 99:25329–25344
Zmazek B, Zivcic M, Vaupotic J, Bidovec M, Poljak M, Kobal I (2002) Soil radon monitoring in the Krsko Basin. Slov Appl Radiat Isot 56:649–657
The authors would like to thank KOERI (Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Turkey) for the earthquake data and the local community (approximately 12 people) for the significant aid with the difficult field studies herein.
About this article
Cite this article
Külahcı, F., Çiçek, Ş. Time-series analysis of water and soil radon anomalies to identify micro–macro-earthquakes. Arab J Geosci 8, 5239–5246 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-014-1513-9
- Trend analysis