The present work focuses on the evaluation of the groundwater quality by chemical and bacteriological analyses to ensure its suitability for drinking and irrigation. Twenty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed from Manfalut district, Assiut, Egypt. Several water quality parameters were determined; the results show higher concentration of total dissolved solids (50 %), electrical conductivity (55 %), chloride (20 %), total hardness (20 %), and bicarbonate (55 %). This indicates signs of deterioration regarding drinking and domestic uses. Salinity hazard, sodium absorption ratio, sodium (Na) percentage, and residual Na carbonate were used to evaluate groundwater quality for irrigation. The values of electrical conductivity and SAR of groundwater samples were estimated illustrating that the most dominant classes are C2S1 (45 %; medium-salinity-low SAR), C3S1 (50 %; high-salinity-low SAR), and C4S1 (5 %; very high-salinity-low SAR). Bacteriological analysis was also conducted for 20 groundwater wells from December 2011 to May 2012. Seven samples (35 %) are contaminated by bacteria (total and fecal coliforms); these wells are not suitable for drinking. The analysis exhibits that bacterial contamination was the maximum in wells located at the center of the study area; this may be due to using the residential septic tanks. It was also discovered that the quality of groundwater is suitable for irrigation in the target aquifer except in a few locations. As for drinking, about 55 % of the samples are not suitable. However, the groundwater wells which are located in the center of the study area are suitable for drinking according to the hydochemical analysis. It was found that some of these wells are not suitable based on bacteriological analysis.
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This work has been funded by the TEMPUS Project of Applied Environmental Geosciences and Water Resources Management (JEP-32005-2004), Assiut University, Egypt. We are also grateful to the Laboratory of Faculty of Agricultural, Assuit University for analyzing the groundwater samples.
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Saber, M., Abdelshafy, M., Faragallah, M.E.A. et al. Hydrochemical and bacteriological analyses of groundwater and its suitability for drinking and agricultural uses at Manfalut District, Assuit, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 7, 4593–4613 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-013-1103-2
- Hydrocehmical analysis
- Bacteriological analysis
- Groundwater quality
- Drinking and irrigation uses