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An integrated approach to investigate saline water intrusion and to identify the salinity sources in the Central Godavari delta, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

The Central Godavari delta is located along the Bay of Bengal Coast, Andhra Pradesh, India, and is drained by Pikaleru, Kunavaram and Vasalatippa drains. There is no groundwater pumping for agriculture as wells as for domestic purpose due to the brackish nature of the groundwater at shallow depths. The groundwater table depths vary from 0.8 to 3.4 m and in the Ravva Onshore wells, 4.5 to 13.3 m. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys were carried out at several locations in the delta to delineate the aquifer geometry and to identify saline water aquifer zones. Groundwater samples collected and analyzed for major ions for assessing the saline water intrusion and to identify the salinity origin in the delta region. The results derived from ERT indicated low resistivity values in the area, which can be attributed to the existence of thick marine clays from ground surface to 12–15 m below ground level near the coast and high resistivity values are due to the presence of coarse sand with freshwater away from the coast. The resistivity values similar to saline water <0.01 Ω m is attributed to the mixing of the saline water along surface water drains. In the Ravva Onshore Terminal low resistivity values indicated up coning of saline water and mixing of saline water from Pikaleru drain. The SO −24 /Cland Na+2/Clratios did not indicate saline water intrusion and the salinity is due to marine palaeosalinity, dilution of marine clays and dissolution of evaporites.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Director, NGRI, Hyderabad, for his encouragement to publish this paper. The authors also express their sincere thanks to the Cairn India Ltd for sponsoring the project to the NGRI

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Correspondence to Naidu L.S..

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L.S., N., V.V.S., G.R., G., T.R. et al. An integrated approach to investigate saline water intrusion and to identify the salinity sources in the Central Godavari delta, Andhra Pradesh, India. Arab J Geosci 6, 3709–3724 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-012-0634-2

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Keywords

  • Central Godavari delta
  • Groundwater
  • Groundwater Salinity
  • Evaporites
  • Ionic ratios