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Application of the principal component analysis on geochemical data: a case study in the basement complex of Southern Ilesa area, Nigeria

تطبيق تحليل العنصر الأساسي (المركبة ألأساسية) على البيانات الجيوكيميائية :دراسة حالة في القاعدة في منطقة جنوب إلياس ، نيجيريا


The study area occupies a part in southern Ilesa and is located within the schist belt of southwestern Nigeria, which embraces undifferentiated schist, gneisses, and migmatites with pegmatites, schist and epidorite complex, quartzite and quartz schist, granite gneiss, amphibolite, pegmatised schist, granulite, and gneiss. The study is aimed at clarifying the potential source of mineralization dealt with before in regional studies. Sixty-one soil samples were collected and analyzed for identifying these elements: Pb, Fe, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn. Multivariate analysis was done to obtain the coefficients of principal components from the standardized variables The elemental associations from the principal components analysis that accounted for 85.34% variability of the total variance are: Fe–Mn, Pb–Cr, and Cd–Zn. Comparably, these are equivalent with the previous results in the amphibolites and added the extension of association region to involve the schist and epidorite complex, quartzite, and quartz schist. The metallic association ratio revealed high metallic concentrations and led to the mineralization trend in southern Ilesa.


الملخصتغطي منطقة الدراسة جزء من جنوب إليسا وتقع خلال حزام schist جنوب غرب نيجيريا والتي تضم undifferentiated schist, gneisses and migmatites with pegmatites, schist and epidorite complex, و الكوارتز و and quartz schist,و الجرانيت و granite gneiss, amphibolite, pegmatised schist, granulite and gneiss. . وتهدف هذه الدراسة إلى توضيح مصدرا محتملا للتعدين تم معالجته سابقا في دراسات إقليمية . تم جمع 61 عينة من التربة وتحليلاها و تعريفها : الرصاص و الحديد و النيكل و الكادميوم و الكروم و النحاس و الزنك و المنجنيز . استخدم التحليل المتعدد المتغيرات للحصول على معاملات المكونات الرئيسية من المتغيرات القياسية . يمثل اصطحاب العناصر من تحليل المكونات الرئيسية تباينا قدره 85.34% من إجمالي التباين وهم : الحديد – المنجنيز و الرصاص – الكروم و الكادميوم – الزنك . بالمقارنة ، توافق هذه النتائج مع النتائج السابقة في amphibolites وتضيف أمتداد لمنطقة الاصطحاب لتشمل the schist and epidorite complex والكوارتز والكوارتز شست . نسبة الاصطحاب المعدني تكشف عن تركيز عالي للمعادن وتشير إلى الاتجاه للتعدين في جنوب إليسا.

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The authors wish to express gratitude to the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy for granting Associateship Visit to EAA. It was during this visit that he was able to carry out most of the data analysis. Support from SIDA is also acknowledged. Prof. M.O. Olorunfemi of the Department of Geology at OAU Ife, has been very supportive and his critical observations have greatly improved this work.

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Correspondence to Emmanuel A. Ariyibi.

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Ariyibi, E.A., Folami, S.L., Ako, B.D. et al. Application of the principal component analysis on geochemical data: a case study in the basement complex of Southern Ilesa area, Nigeria. Arab J Geosci 4, 239–247 (2011).

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  • Multivariate
  • Principal component
  • Basement and variability