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Environmental contamination of trace elements in the vicinity of Okpara coal mine, Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

التلوث البيئي بالعناصر الشحيحة في ساحة منجم فحم أوكبارا ، إنجيو ، جنوب شرق نيجيريا

Abstract

Water, sediment, and mine spoil samples were collected within the vicinity of the Okpara coal mine in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria, and analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS to assess the level of environmental contamination by these elements. The results obtained show that the mine spoils and sediments are relatively enriched in Fe, with mean values of 1,307.8(mg/kg) for mine spoils and 94.15% for sediments. As, Cd, Cr, Mn,Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments were found to be enriched relative to the mean values obtained from the study area, showing contamination by these elements. The mean values of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Cr in the mine spoils and mean values of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Mn in sediments, respectively, are above the background values obtained from coal and shale in the study area, indicating enrichment with these elements. The water and sediments are moderately acidic, with mean pH values of 4.22 ± 1.06 and 4.66 ± 1.35, respectively. With the exception of Fe, Mn, and Ni, all other elements are within the Nigerian water quality standard and WHO limits for drinking water and other domestic purposes. The strong to moderate positive correlation between Fe and Cu (r = 0.72), Fe and Zn (r = 0.88), and Fe and As (r = 0.60) at p < 0.05 as obtained for the sediments depict the scavenging effect of Fe on these mobile elements. As also shows a strong positive correlation with Mn (r = ≥ 0.70, p < 0.05), indicating that Mn plays a major role in scavenging elements that are not co-precipitated with Fe. In water, the strong positive correlation observed between Cr and Cd (r = 1.00), Cu and Ni (r = 0.94), Pb and Cu (r = 0.87) and Zn and Cu (r = 0.99); Ni and Pb (r = 0.83) and Zn and Ni (r = 0.97); and between Pb and Zn (0.84) at p < 0.05 may indicate similar element–water reaction control on the system due to similarities in chemical properties as well as a common source. Elevated levels of heavy metals in sediments relative to surface water probably imply that sorption and co-precipitation on Al and Fe oxides are more effective in the mobilization and attenuation of heavy metals in the mine area than acid-induced dissolution. The level of concentration of trace elements for the mine spoils will serve as baseline data for future reference in the study area.

Abstract

عينات مياه ورسوبيات وشوائب المنجم التي تم جمعها من ساحة منجم فحم أوكبارا الذي يقع في إنجيو جنوب شرق نيجيريا و وبعد تحليلها للعناصر الشحيحة باستخدام ICP-MS تم استخدمها لتقييم مستوى التلوث البيئي بهذه العناصر . أثبتت النتائج أن المناجم ملوثة وأن الرسوبيات أصبحت أغنى بالحديد ومتوسط تلوث المنجم هو 1307.8ملليجرام/ كيلو وتلوث الرسوبيات هو 94.15%. حيث وجدت عناصر المنجنيز و النيكل وكروم و زنك والرصاص مترسبة بنسبه أعلى من القيم المتوسطة التي تم الحصول عليها من منطقة الدراسة . القيم المتوسطة من الحديد والكروم والنحاس والمنجنيز من المنجم والقيم المتوسطة من الحديد والنحاس والرصاص و الزنك و النيكل و الكروم و المنجنيز في الرسوبيات كانت أعلى من القيم السابقة التي تم الحصول عليها من الفحم و الطمي الصخري في منطقة الدراسة والتي تبين زيادة في هذه العناصر . الماء والرسوبيات قليلة الحموضة ومتوسط القيم هي 4.22 ± 1.06 و4.66 ± 1.35 على الترتيب . جميع العناصر تقع في النطاق القياسي للمياه النيجيرية و حدود مياه الشرب ومياه الأغراض المحلية الأخرى الخاصة ب WHO إلا النيكل و المنجنيز و الحديد .علاقة الارتباط الايجابية القوية إلى المتوسطة بين الحديد و النحاس (r=0.72) و الحديد والزنك (r = 0.88) و الحديد والزرنيخ (r = 0.60) عند P < 0.05 في الرسوبيات تبين التأثير الكاسح للحديد على هذه العناصر . كما يتضح أيضا الارتباط الايجابي مع المنجنيز(r = >0.70, P < 0.05) الذي يبين أن المجنيز يلعب دوراً رئيسيا في العناصر المكتسحة التي لم تشارك الحديد. علاقة الارتباط الايجابية القوية المشاهدة في المياه بين الكروم و الكادميوم (r = 1.000) و النحاس و النيكل (r = O.94) و الرصاص والنحاس (r = 0.87) و الزنك والنحاس (r = 0.99) و النيكل و الرصاص (r = 0.83) و الزنك و (r = 0.97) و بين Ph و الزنك (0.84) عند P < 0.05 قد تبين تفاعل مماثل لمحتوى عناصر لها نفس الخصائص الكيميائية وأيضا نفس المصدر .مستويات مرتفعة من المعادن الثقيلة في الرسوبيات بالنسبة للمياه السطحية قد يعني ان الامتصاص وهطول الأمطار على الومنيوم وأكسيد الحديد لها تأثير أكبر ، في الجريان والتوهين على المعادن الثقيلة في منطقة المنجم ، من المحلول الحمضي المستحث . مستوى التركيز للعناصر الشحيحة في المناجم الملوثة تستخدم كبيانات مرجعية لموقع الدراسة .

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Correspondence to Therese N. Nganje.

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Nganje, T.N., Adamu, C.I., Ugbaja, A.N. et al. Environmental contamination of trace elements in the vicinity of Okpara coal mine, Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. Arab J Geosci 4, 199–205 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-010-0173-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-010-0173-7

Keywords

  • Trace elements
  • Contamination
  • Coal mine
  • Nigeria