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Conceptual model and numerical simulation of the hydrothermal system in Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

النموذج التصوري و المحاكاه العددية للنظام الحراري الأرضي أسفل عين حمام فرعون- شبه جزيرة سيناء - مصر


The tectonic position of Egypt in the northeastern corner of the African continent suggests that it may possess significant geothermal resources, especially along its eastern margin. The most of the thermal springs in Egypt are located along the shores of Gulf of Suez and Red Sea. These springs are probably tectonic or nonvolcanic origin associated with the opening of the Red Sea—Gulf of Suez rifts, where the eastern shore of the Gulf of Suez is characterized by superficial thermal manifestations including a cluster of hot springs with varied temperatures. Hammam Faraun area consists of the hottest spring in Egypt where the water temperature is 70°C. Conceptual as well as numerical models were made on the Hammam Faraun hot spring based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical data. The models show that the heat source of the hot spring is probably derived from high heat flow and deep water circulation controlled by faults associated with the opening of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez rifts.


الوضع التكتوني لمصر في الركن الشمالي الشرقي من القارة الاقريقية يوحي بأنها تتمتع بقدر كبير من موارد الطاقة الحراريه الارضية و خصوصا علي طول حافتها الشرقية. و لهذا نجد أن معظم الينابيع الساخنة في مصر تقع علي طول شواطئ خليج السويس و البحر الاحمر و هذه الينابيع تكتوتيه المنشا و ليست بركانيه و ربما مرتبطه بالصدوع المسئوله عن تكوين البحر الاحمر و خليج السويس. حمام فرعون الذي يقع علي حافه خليج السويس الشرقية يعتبر من أسخن وأهم الينابيع الساخنة في مصر حيث تصل درجه حرارتة علي السطح الي 70 درجة سليزيوس. بناءا علي البيانات الجيولوجيه و الجيوكيمائية و الجيوفيزيائية لمنطقة حمام فرعون تم عمل نموذج تصوري للوضع الحراري و كذلك تم عمل محاكاة عددية لهذا الوضع التصوري. و تبين النموذج التصوري و العددي ان مصدر الحراره في عين حمام فرعون هو ناتج من ارتفاع في الصخور الناريه الساخنة و هذا يؤدي الي تسخين المياة القادمة من الامطار و كذلك من مياه خليج السويس عبر الشقوق الموجوده في هذه الصخور.

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We would like to express our gratitude to all staff members in National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Egypt for their helpful and assistance. Also, many thanks to all the staff of the Laboratory of Geothermics, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan for their guidance and support.

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Correspondence to Mohamed Abdel Zaher.

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Zaher, M.A., Ehara, S. & El-Qady, G. Conceptual model and numerical simulation of the hydrothermal system in Hammam Faraun hot spring, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 4, 161–170 (2011).

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  • Hot springs
  • Hammam Faraun
  • Conceptual model
  • Numerical model
  • Red Sea
  • Gulf of Suez