Kunnen kinderen symptomen van nicotineafhankelijkheid ontwikkelen door blootstelling aan omgevingsrook?

Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

Samenvatting

Inleiding

Recente studies hebben gesuggereerd dat frequente blootstelling aan omgevingsrook psychologische en gedragsmatige reacties in niet-rokers kan veroorzaken.

Methode

Wij onderzochten het verband tussen rookgedrag in de omgeving en psychologische en gedragsmatige symptomen kenmerkend voor nicotineafhankelijkheid in een groep van 778 nooit-rokende kinderen (9–12 jaar oud). Daarnaast vergeleken we het optreden van deze symptomen tussen nooit-rokende kinderen en kinderen die geëxperimenteerd hebben met roken. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd op 15 Nederlandse basisscholen met behulp van vragenlijsten.

Resultaten

Van de nooit-rokende kinderen rapporteerde 6 % een verlangen om te roken (craving), 8 % rapporteerde een verlangen om te roken na blootstelling aan rookgerelateerde stimuli (cue-triggered craving) en 20 % rapporteerde subjectieve symptomen (zoals moeite met concentreren, irritatie) in reactie op omgevingsrook. Een groter aantal rokers in de omgeving van nooit-rokende kinderen was gerelateerd aan meer cue-triggered verlangen en meer subjectieve symptomen.

Conclusie

Omgevingsrook is gerelateerd aan zelfgerapporteerde psychologische en gedragsmatige symptomen in nooit-rokende kinderen. Vervolgonderzoek is nodig om te bepalen of deze symptomen een fysiologische basis hebben of dat ze andere eigenschappen weerspiegelen die kinderen vatbaar maken om in de toekomst te beginnen met roken.

Abstract

Objective

A recent line of studies suggests that repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-behavioural effects in non-smokers.

Method

We examined the association between environmental smoking and occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children (aged 9–12 years). In addition, we compared the occurrence of these symptoms between never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking. Cross-sectional survey data were collected in 15 Dutch primary schools.

Results

A total of 6 % of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8 % reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20 % reported subjective symptoms (e.g. difficulty concentrating, irritations) in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child’s social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms.

Discussion

Environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research should investigate whether these symptoms in children are physiologically-based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future.

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Correspondence to Dr. Kathrin Schuck.

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Schuck, K., Otten, R., Engels, R.C.M.E. et al. Kunnen kinderen symptomen van nicotineafhankelijkheid ontwikkelen door blootstelling aan omgevingsrook?. Kind Adolesc 37, 1–20 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12453-015-0107-y

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Trefwoorden

  • roken
  • omgevingsrook
  • nicotineafhankelijkheid

Keywords

  • smoking
  • environmental tobacco smoke
  • nicotine dependence