Advertisement

Kind & Adolescent

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 1–22 | Cite as

Videospellen: de positieve effecten

  • Isabela Granic
  • Adam Lobel
  • Marlou Poppelaars
  • Rutger C.M.E. Engels
Artikelen

Samenvatting

In de Verenigde Staten besteedt 97 % van de kinderen en adolescenten ten minste één uur per dag aan het spelen van videospellen. Onderzoek naar de effecten van videospellen richt zich voornamelijk op de negatieve gevolgen: de mogelijke schade met betrekking tot geweld, verslaving en depressie. Wij erkennen de waarde van dit onderzoek; maar betogen dat een gebalanceerd perspectief belangrijk is, waarin ook de positieve effecten van videospellen worden meegenomen. Videospellen zijn het laatste decennium drastisch veranderd en worden steeds complexer, diverser, realistischer en socialer van aard. Met name in de afgelopen vijf jaar is belangrijk onderzoek naar de positieve effecten van videospellen gedaan. In dit artikel vatten we dit onderzoek samen met betrekking tot vier hoofddomeinen: cognitie, motivatie, emotie en sociale vaardigheden. Een aantal mogelijke mechanismen die zouden kunnen zorgen voor psychosociale voordelen, worden geformuleerd en wij betrachten voldoende wetenschappelijk bewijs en theoretische ondersteuning te geven om nieuwe onderzoeksprogramma’s te stimuleren naar de grotendeels onverkende positieve effecten van videospellen op de mentale gezondheid. Tot slot worden interventieonderzoekers en clinici opgeroepen om de positieve effecten van videospellen te onderzoeken en geven we hier suggesties voor.

Abstract

Nearly all children and adolescents play video games, with up to 99 % of boys and 94 % of girls in the United States doing so. Research into the effects of video games has almost exclusively focused on negative effects (e.g. aggression and addiction). However, a full understanding of the impact of video games requires this research to be supplemented with research into the benefits of playing video games. This is particularly important since video games have diversified in the last decade and now include more realistic, complex and social game content. In this article we aim to summarize the emerging body of research on the benefits of playing video games. We focus on four domains in which benefits may occur: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. Possible mechanisms are discussed that may underlie the generalization of positive effects of video games on real-world benefits. Our aim is to inspire new research into the potentially positive effects of video games on mental health and we call on intervention researchers and practitioners to put these effects to the test.

Literatuur

  1. Adachi, P. J., & Willoughby, T. (2013). More than just fun and games: The longitudinal relationships between strategic video games, selfreported problem solving skills, and academic grades. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1041–1052. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9913-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217–237. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A., & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 151–173. doi:10.1037/a0018251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bavelier, D., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Brain training: Games to do you good. Nature, 494, 425–426. doi:10.1038/494425a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bavelier, D., Green, C. S., Han, D. H., Renshaw, P. F., Merzenich, M. M., & Gentile, D. A. (2011). Brains on video games. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 763–768. doi:10.1038/nrn3135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bavelier, D., Achtman, R. L., Mani, M., & Föcker, J. (2012). Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players. Vision Research, 61, 132–143. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2011.08.007.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjorklund, D. F., & Pellegrini, A. D. (2010). Evolutionary perspectives on social development. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (pp. 64–81). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78, 246–263. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679–1686. doi:10.1177/014616702237649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Connolly, J. A., & Doyle, A. B. (1984). Relation of social fantasy play to social competence in preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 20, 797–806. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.20.5.797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crenshaw, D. A. (2008). Therapeutic engagement of children and adolescents: Play, symbol, drawing, and storytelling strategies. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  12. Csikszentmihalyi, M., Rathunde, K., & Whalen, S. (1993). Talented teenagers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dweck, C. S., & Molden, D. C. (2005). Self-theories: Their impact on competence motivation and acquisition. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 122–140). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Eastin, M. S. (2007). The influence of competitive and cooperative play on state hostility. Human Communication Research, 33, 450–466. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2007.00307.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Entertainment Software Association. (2012). Essential facts about the computer and video game industry. Opgehaald op 24 december 2014, van http://www.theesa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ESAC_ESSENTIAL_FACTS_2012_EN.pdf.
  16. Erikson, E. H. (1977). Toys and reasons: Stages in the ritualization of experience. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  17. Ewoldsen, D. R., Eno, C. A., Okdie, B. M., Velez, J. A., Guadagno, R. E., & DeCoster, J. (2012). Effect of playing violent video games cooperatively or competitively on subsequent cooperative behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 277–280. doi:10.1089/cyber.2011.0308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ferguson, C. J. (2007). The good, the bad and the ugly: A meta-analytic review of positive and negative effects of violent video games. Psychiatric Quarterly, 78, 309–316. doi:10.1007/s11126-007-9056-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferguson, C. J. (2013). Violent video games and the Supreme Court. American Psychologist, 68, 57–74. doi:10.1037/a0030597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferguson, C. J., & Garza, A. (2011). Call of (civic) duty: Action games and civic behavior in a large sample of youth. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 770–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferguson, C. J., & Olson, C. K. (2013). Friends, fun, frustration and fantasy: Child motivations for video game play. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 154–164. doi:1007/s11031-012-9284-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fine, S., Forth, A., Gilbert, M., & Haley, G. (1991). Group therapy for adolescent depressive disorder: A comparison of social skills and therapeutic support. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 79–85. doi:10.1097/00004583-199101000-00012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gentile, D. A. (2009). Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8–18: A national study. Psychological Science, 20, 594–602. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02340.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gentile, D. A., & Gentile, J. R. (2008). Violent video games as exemplary teachers: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 9, 127–141. doi:10.1007/S10964-007-9206-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., Yukawa, S., Ihori, N., Saleem, M., Ming, L. K., Shibuya, A., Liau, A. K., Khoo, A., Bushman, B. J., Rowell Huesmann, L., Sakamoto, A. (2009). The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: International evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 752–763. doi:10.1177/0146167209333045.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gill, N. (2012). 10 most popular Facebook games in 2012 – Popular apps!! Opgehaald op 12 juli 2013, van http://www.socialdon.com/blog/popularfacebook-games-2012/.
  28. Gottman, J. M. (1986). The world of coordinated play: Same- and cross-sex friendship in young children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Green, J. (2006). Annotation: The therapeutic alliance – a significant but neglected variable in child mental health treatment studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 425–435. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01516.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2012). Learning, attentional control, and action video games. Current Biology, 22, 197–206. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.02.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and wellbeing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Jackson, L. A., Witt, E. A., Games, A. I., Fitzgerald, H. E., Von Eye, A., & Zhao, Y. (2012). Information technology use and creativity: Findings from the Children and Technology Project. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 370–376. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.10.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kato, P. M. (2010). Video games in health care: Closing the gap. Review of General Psychology, 14, 113–121. doi:10.1037/a0019441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kato, P. M., Cole, S. W., Bradlyn, A. S., & Pollock, B. H. (2008). A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: A randomized trial. Pediatrics, 122, e305–e317. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Evidence-based treatment research: Advances, limitations, and next steps. American Psychologist, 66, 685–698. doi:10.1037/a0024975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kendall, S. B. (1974). Preference for intermittent reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21, 463–473. doi:10.1901/ jeab.1974.21-463.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kendall, P. C. (2011). Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  38. Klimmt, C., Vorderer, P., & Ritterfeld, U. (2007). Interactivity and generalizability: New media, new challenges. Communication Methods and Measures, 1(3), 169–179. doi:10.1080/19312450701434961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lemola, S., Brand, S., Vogler, N., Perkinson-Gloor, N., Allemand, M., & Grob, A. (2011). Habitual computer game playing at night is related to depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 117–122. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, A. R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008). Teens, video games, and civics: Teens’ gaming experiences are diverse and include significant social interaction and civic engagement. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved from the Pew Internet & American Life Project website: Opgehaald op 24 december 2014, van http://www.pewinternet.org/2008/09/16/teens-video-games-and-civics/.
  41. McGonigal, J. (2011). Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  42. Merry, S. N., Stasiak, K., Shepherd, M., Frampton, C., Fleming, T., & Lucassen, M. F. (2012). The effectiveness of SPARX, a computerised self help intervention for adolescents seeking help for depression: Randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. British Medical Journal, 344, e2598. doi:10.1136/bmj.e2598.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Motion Picture Association of America. (2011). Theatrical market statistics 2011. Opgehaald op 24 december 2014, van http://www.scribd.com/doc/198751881/MPAA-Theatrical-Market-Statistics-2011#scribd.
  44. Nakamura, J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). The concept of flow. In C. R. Synder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 89–105). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. NPD Group. (2011). The video game industry is adding 2–17-year-old gamers at a rate higher than that age group’s population growth. Opgehaald op 24 december 2014, van http://www.afjv.com/news/233_kids-and-gaming-2011.htm.
  46. Obama, B., & Biden, J. (2013). Remarks by the president and the vice president on gun violence. Opgehaald op 24 december 2014, van http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/01/16/remarks-president-and-vice-president-gun-violence.
  47. Olson, C. K. (2010). Children’s motivations for video game play in the context of normal development. Review of General Psychology, 14, 180–187. doi:10.1037/a0018984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. O’Neil, H. F., Wainess, R., & Baker, E. L. (2005). Classification of learning outcomes: Evidence from the computer games literature. The Curriculum Journal, 16, 455–474. doi:10.1080/09585170500384529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pellis, S. M., & Pellis, V. C. (2007). Rough-and-tumble play and the development of the social brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 95–98. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00483.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams and imitation (Vol. 24). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  51. Prensky, M. (2012). From digital natives to digital wisdom: Hopeful essays for 21st century learning. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ritterfeld, U., Cody, M., & Vorderer, P. (Eds.). (2009). Serious games: Mechanisms and effects. New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  53. Rooij, A. J. van, Schoenmakers, T. M., Vermulst, A. A., Eijnden, R. J. J. M. van den, & Mheen, D. van de (2011). Online video game addiction: Identification of addicted adolescent gamers. Addiction, 106, 205–212. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03104.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3, 3–37. doi:10.1207/S15327825MCS0301_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Russoniello, C. V., O’Brien, K., & Parks, J. M. (2009). EEG, HRV and psychological correlates while playing Bejeweled II: A randomized controlled study. In B. K. Wiederhold & G. Riva (Eds.), Annual review of cybertherapy and telemedicine 2009: Advance technologies in the behavioral, social and neurosciences (Vol. 7, pp. 189–192). Amsterdam: Interactive Media Institute and IOS Press. doi:10.3233/978-1-60750-017-9-189.Google Scholar
  56. Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 347–363. doi:10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8.Google Scholar
  57. Salminen, M., & Ravaja, N. (2008). Increased oscillatory theta activation evoked by violent digital game events. Neuroscience Letters, 435, 69–72. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.02.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Schmierbach, M. (2010). “Killing spree”: Exploring the connection between competitive game play and aggressive cognition. Communication Research, 37(2), 256–274. doi:10.1177/0093650209356394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sherry, J. L. (2004). Flow and media enjoyment. Communication Theory, 14, 328–347. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00318.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Steinkuehler, C., & Duncan, S. (2008). Scientific habits of mind in virtual worlds. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 530–543. doi:10.1007/s10956-008-9120-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sweetser, P., & Wyeth, P. (2005). GameFlow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. Computers in Entertainment, 3(3), Article 3A. doi:10.1145/1077246.1077253.Google Scholar
  62. Tamborini, R., Bowman, N. D., Eden, A., Grizzard, M., & Organ, A. (2010). Defining media enjoyment as the satisfaction of intrinsic needs. Journal of Communication, 60, 758–777. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01513.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tear, M. J., & Nielsen, M. (2013). Failure to demonstrate that playing violent video games diminishes prosocial behavior. PLoS ONE, 8, e68382. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Uttal, D. H., Meadow, N. G., Tipton, E., Hand, L. L., Alden, A. R., Warren, C., & Newcombe, N. S. (2013). The malleability of spatial skills: A meta-analysis of training studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 352–402. doi:10.1037/a0028446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Velez, J. A., Mahood, C., Ewoldsen, D. R., & Moyer-Gusé, E. (2014). Ingroup versus outgroup conflict in the context of violent video game play: The effect of cooperation on increased helping and decreased aggression. Communication Research, 41, 607-626. doi:10.1177/0093650212456202.Google Scholar
  66. Ventura, M., Shute, V., & yZhao, W. (2013). The relationship between video game use and a performance-based measure of persistence. Computers & Education, 60, 52–58. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.07.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vogel, J. J., Vogel, D. S., Cannon-Bowers, J., Bowers, C. A., Muse, K., & Wright, M. (2006). Computer gaming and interactive simulations for learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34, 229–243. doi:10.2190/FLHV-K4WA-WPVQ-H0YM.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological functions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Wai, J., Lubinski, D., Benbow, C. P., & Steiger, J. H. (2010). Accomplishment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and its relation to STEM educational dose: A 25-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 860–871. doi:10.1037/a0019454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabela Granic
    • 1
  • Adam Lobel
    • 1
  • Marlou Poppelaars
    • 1
  • Rutger C.M.E. Engels
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculteit Sociale wetenschappen, Behavioural Science InstituteRadboud Universiteit NijmegenNijmegenNederland

Personalised recommendations