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PAH Pollution in Particulate Matter and Risk in Chinese Cities

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A Correction to this article was published on 20 September 2023

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Abstract

In China, with the largest population and known as the world's factory, the study of air pollution trends can provide an important reference value for the world's population and manufacturing countries. In particular, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution status in particulate matter can accurately reflect the dynamic balance between the atmosphere and sediments and the risks to people and ecology. This study combined 85 publications with over 6971 individual samples from 219 sites in 89 Chinese cities. The findings were first integrated into a unified database of the spatial distribution of the PAH concentration. The results revealed that the parent PAH concentration and pollution in atmospheric particulates greatly increased in Chinese cities (> 500 thousand people). The contamination levels, as indicated by the toxic equivalent quantity, incremental lifetime cancer risk, hazard index, and ecological risk, were higher in northern China (NC) than in southern China (SC). The health risk of subpopulations followed the cohort order of juveniles (≤ 18) < adults (> 18). The risk quotient and sediment quality guidelines showed that certain individual PAHs could occasionally pose an ecological risk in some cities, especially in NC. The results of the mean effect range median quotient suggested that the combined negative ecological effects of ∑16PAHs resulted in high (NC) and moderate (SC) risks. The ecological risk level in 73 cities in China was above the moderate level, which is mainly controlled by the source of coal for residential heating and heavy industry, automobile exhaust and light industries in NC and SC, respectively.

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Data Availability

Many literature can find that the vast majority of countries in Southeast Asia, South America, Africa, and the Middle East have similar GDP and population density to China, and most of them are developing countries, which are in the process of rapid development. Countries located in high latitude regions have severe heating pollution during long winters, while countries in low latitude regions do not require heating pollution during winters. (such as https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2021.101010; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2021.103020; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2023.115620; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127187).

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Innovation Fund of Colleges and Universities of Gansu Province (2021B-272), Longdong University Ph.D. Candidate Scientific Research Fund (XYBY202004), and Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province (20JR10RA133). The authors sincerely thank the anonymous reviewers and Prof. Andrew Meharg for their detailed and specific revision suggestions and views. These revision suggestions greatly improved the quality of this paper. Thank you very much to senior editor Ruiz P. and AJE for editing this paper.

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Wu, Y., Zhang, N., Shi, Y. et al. PAH Pollution in Particulate Matter and Risk in Chinese Cities. Expo Health (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-023-00562-z

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