Skip to main content


Log in

Impact of Essential and Toxic Trace Metals on Thyroid Health and Cancer: A Review

  • Review Paper
  • Published:
Exposure and Health Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Most investigations conducted in the last four decades have shown a rising incidence of thyroid diseases worldwide. Although our knowledge of the molecular pathways of thyroid disease has advanced, the initial steps in thyroid cancerogenesis have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. However, recent human biomonitoring studies have shown that specific trace metals, as major endocrine disrupters, could be considered as risk factors for impaired thyroid health and the evolution of thyroid cancer (TC). In this review, the impact of essential and toxic trace metals from the environment on thyroid health and TC was evaluated. Furthermore, this review clarifies which trace metals most likely contribute to the etiology of TC. Biomarkers based on trace metal ratios are proposed. Overall, the information described in this review is expected to be useful in planning future fundamental and applied studies on the endocrine toxicity of essential and toxic trace metals.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others


Download references


This study was supported by Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia Contract Number: 451-03-9/2021-14/200288.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



A.S. and B.R. designed the investigation, analyzed the data, and wrote the first and last version of the paper; both authors participated in writing through reviewing and editing. Both authors contributed critically to the draft and gave final approval for publication.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aleksandar Stojsavljević.

Ethics declarations

conflict of Interest

Both authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Stojsavljević, A., Rovčanin, B. Impact of Essential and Toxic Trace Metals on Thyroid Health and Cancer: A Review. Expo Health 13, 613–627 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: