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Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Through the Consumption of Common Foodstuffs Collected from Two Divisional Cities of Bangladesh


This study was designed to evaluate heavy metal status in commonly consumed foodstuffs collected from two divisional cities, viz., Chottogram and Mymensingh of Bangladesh and to assess potential human health risks through the consumption of those foodstuffs. A total of 90 food samples were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mn, and Fe contents by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The calculated per capita per day dietary intakes of Cu and Mn from rice and Mn’s same value through spinach consumption in both cities were higher than the recommended daily allowances (RDA) for an adult human. Similarly, the computed daily metal intake (DMI) values of Pb for both males and females were also higher than the upper tolerable intake level (UTIL) through the consumption of rice collected from Mymensingh city. The average calculated hazard index (HI) values for males and females due to dietary intake of rice were 47.67 and 93.30 in Chottogram city and 97.98 and 192.04 in Mymensingh city, respectively. The present study identified rice as the most contaminated food item, followed by spinach, brinjal, and lentil. Still, dietary intakes of beef, broiler, and fish samples collected from both the cities were found as safe or less hazardous. Among the individual metals, Mn was the most dominant metal present in different foodstuffs collected from both the cities and contributed significant risk to the people. Finally, the study concluded that Bangladesh’s food consumption patterns should be changed and advised to incorporate more proteins in regular diet charts by reducing carbohydrates.

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The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author.


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This work was financially supported by the Grants on Advanced Research in Education (GARE), Ministry of Education, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh for the financial year 2016–2019 under the Sanction Order no. 37.20.0000. dated May 11, 2017.

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Correspondence to H. M. Zakir.

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Authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The products used for this research are commonly and predominantly use products in our area of research and country. There is absolutely no conflict of interest among the authors and producers of the products because we do not intend to use these products as an avenue for any litigation but for the advancement of knowledge.

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All studies were conducted in accordance with principles for international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals. This article does not contain any studies involving human participants performed by any of the authors. The manuscript in part or in full has not been submitted or published anywhere.

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Zakir, H.M., Quadir, Q.F. & Mollah, M.Z.I. Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Through the Consumption of Common Foodstuffs Collected from Two Divisional Cities of Bangladesh. Expo Health 13, 253–268 (2021).

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  • Plant & animal origin foodstuffs
  • Metal contamination
  • Hazard index
  • RDA
  • PCA