Exposure and Health

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 253–264 | Cite as

Human Health Risk Assessment of Chromium in Drinking Water: A Case Study of Sukinda Chromite Mine, Odisha, India

  • Aliya Naz
  • Brijesh Kumar MishraEmail author
  • Sunil Kumar Gupta
Original Paper


The present study aims to evaluate human health risk of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) via oral and dermal exposure of drinking water in groundwater samples of nearby Sukinda chromite mine. The risk assessment of each location was carried out using mathematical models as per IRIS guidelines and the input parameters were taken according to the Indian context. The concentrations of TCr and Cr(VI) were found in the range of 48.7–250.2 and 21.4–115.2 μg/l, respectively. In the maximum locations, TCr and Cr(VI) concentrations were found 2.3–6 times and 2.1–11.5 times higher, respectively, than the permissible limit as per standard statutory bodies. The total cumulative average cancer risk and non-cancer risk (Hazard Quotient) was found 2.04E−03 and 1.37 in male and 1.73E−03 and 1.16 in the female population, respectively, which indicated ‘very high’ cancer risk and ‘medium’ non-cancer risk as per USEPA guideline. Male population was found 1.2 times higher cancer and non-cancer risk than females, because of the higher water ingestion rate in male. The obtained health risk via dermal route was found 6 times lesser than the oral ingestion due to very less dermal exposure time (0.58 h/days). As a consequence, ‘high’ cancer risk also recorded in one of the locations where TCr concentration was within permissible limit which is because of the higher proportion of bioavailable Cr(VI). Sensitivity analysis of input parameters towards cancer and non-cancer risk revealed that Cr(VI) and Cr(III) concentrations were the main predominant parameters followed by exposure duration, body weight, average time, and dermal slope factor.


Chromite mine Chromium Dermal exposure Groundwater Oral exposure Risk assessment 



The authors would like to acknowledge Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India, for providing research and financial facilities. The authors would also like to thank Mr. Utsav Kashyap (Environmental Manager of TISCO, Sukinda Chromite Mine) for facilitating the collection of water samples during this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aliya Naz
    • 1
  • Brijesh Kumar Mishra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sunil Kumar Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian School of Mines DhanbadDhanbadIndia

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