Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 583–590 | Cite as

Evaluation of Stored Rainwater Quality in Basic Schools in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

  • S. J. CobbinaEmail author
  • Y. P. Agoboh
  • A. B. Duwiejuah
  • N. Bakobie
Original Paper


This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of stored rainwater in basic schools in the Tamale Metropolis, a semi-arid region of Ghana, which experiences persistent water scarcity. Sixty four stored rainwater samples were collected from eight rainwater harvesting facilities in eight basic schools in November and December, 2013, and analysed. Total coliform levels ranged from 1.1 × 101 to 1.2 × 103 cfu/100 ml with a mean of 208 ± 195 cfu/100 ml. The microbial load exceeded World Health Organisation’s (WHO) limit for potability. Heavy metal concentrations were within WHO standards except cadmium and lead. Drinking of stored rainwater can be deleterious to the health of pupils in the basic schools studied. It is therefore recommended that potable water should be provided in the basic schools in order to meet the millennium development goals.


Microbial Cadmium Stored rainwater quality Tamale Metropolis Ghana 



We are grateful to the Government of Ghana, for the provision of the Book and Research Allowance (GoG BRA), which was used in funding this study. Authors also wish to thank the staff of CSIR—Water Research Institute (WRI), Tamale, for water quality analyses.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

There is no competing interest among authors regarding the publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Cobbina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Y. P. Agoboh
    • 1
  • A. B. Duwiejuah
    • 1
  • N. Bakobie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecotourism & Environmental Management, Faculty of Renewable Natural ResourcesUniversity for Development StudiesNyankpalaGhana

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