Skip to main content

ADHD and autism: differential diagnosis or overlapping traits? A selective review

Abstract

According to DSM-IV TR and ICD-10, a diagnosis of autism or Asperger Syndrome precludes a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, despite the different conceptualization, population-based twin studies reported symptom overlap, and a recent epidemiologically based study reported a high rate of ADHD in autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the planned revision of the DSM-IV TR, dsm5 (www.dsm5.org), the diagnoses of autistic disorder and ADHD will not be mutually exclusive any longer. This provides the basis of more differentiated studies on overlap and distinction between both disorders. This review presents data on comorbidity rates and symptom overlap and discusses common and disorder-specific risk factors, including recent proteomic studies. Neuropsychological findings in the areas of attention, reward processing, and social cognition are then compared between both disorders, as these cognitive abilities show overlapping as well as specific impairment for one of both disorders. In addition, selective brain imaging findings are reported. Therapeutic options are summarized, and new approaches are discussed. The review concludes with a prospectus on open questions for research and clinical practice.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abrahams BS, Geschwind DH (2010) Connecting genes to brain in the autism spectrum disorders. Arch Neurol 67:395–399

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adler N, Nadler B, Eviatar Z, Shamay-Tsoory SG (2010) The relationship between theory of mind and autobiographical memory in high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Psychiatry Res 178:214–216

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed FS, Stephen ML (2011) Executive function mechanisms of theory of mind. J Autism Dev Disord 41:667–678

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aman MG, Arnold LE, Ramadan Y, Witwer A, Lindsay R, McDougle CJ, Posey DJ, Swiezy N, Kohn A, McCracken JT, Shah B, Cronin P, McGough J, Lee JSY, Scahill L, Martin A, Koenig K, Carroll D, Young C, Lancor A, Tierney E, Ghuman J, Gonzalez NM, Grados M, Vitiello B, Ritz L, Chuang S, Davies M, Robinson J, McMahon D (2005) Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in pervasive developmental disorders with hyperactivity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:1266–1274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amaral DG, Schumann CM, Nordahl CW (2008) Neuroanatomy of autism. Trends Neurosci 31:137–145

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ameis SH, Fan J, Rockel C, Voineskos AN, Lobaugh NJ, Soorya L, Wang AT, Hollander E, Anagnostou E (2011) Impaired structural connectivity of socio-emotional circuits in autism spectrum disorders: a diffusion tensor imaging study. PLoS One 6:e28044

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ames CS, White SJ (2011) Are ADHD traits dissociable from the autistic profile? Links between cognition and behaviour. J Autism Dev Disord 41:357–363

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anagnostou E, Taylor MJ (2011) Review of neuroimaging in autism spectrum disorders: what have we learned and where we go from here. Mol Autism 2:4

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anney R, Klei L, Pinto D, Regan R, Conroy J, Magalhaes TR, Correia C, Abrahams BS, Sykes N, Pagnamenta AT, Almeida J, Bacchelli E, Bailey AJ, Baird G, Battaglia A, Berney T, Bolshakova N, Bolte S, Bolton PF, Bourgeron T, Brennan S, Brian J, Carson AR, Casallo G, Casey J, Chu SH, Cochrane L, Corsello C, Crawford EL, Crossett A, Dawson G, de JM, Delorme R, Drmic I, Duketis E, Duque F, Estes A, Farrar P, Fernandez BA, Folstein SE, Fombonne E, Freitag CM, Gilbert J, Gillberg C, Glessner JT, Goldberg J, Green J, Guter SJ, Hakonarson H, Heron EA, Hill M, Holt R, Howe JL, Hughes G, Hus V, Igliozzi R, Kim C, Klauck SM, Kolevzon A, Korvatska O, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Lamb JA, Laskawiec M, Leboyer M, Le CA, Leventhal BL, Lionel AC, Liu XQ, Lord C, Lotspeich L, Lund SC, Maestrini E, Mahoney W, Mantoulan C, Marshall CR, McConachie H, McDougle CJ, McGrath J, McMahon WM, Melhem NM, Merikangas A, Migita O, Minshew NJ, Mirza GK, Munson J, Nelson SF, Noakes C, Noor A, Nygren G, Oliveira G, Papanikolaou K, Parr JR, Parrini B, Paton T, Pickles A, Piven J, Posey DJ, Poustka A, Poustka F, Prasad A, Ragoussis J, Renshaw K, Rickaby J, Roberts W, Roeder K, Roge B, Rutter ML, Bierut LJ, Rice JP, Salt J, Sansom K, Sato D, Segurado R, Senman L, Shah N, Sheffield VC, Soorya L, Sousa I, Stoppioni V, Strawbridge C, Tancredi R, Tansey K, Thiruvahindrapduram B, Thompson AP, Thomson S, Tryfon A, Tsiantis J, van EH, Vincent JB, Volkmar F, Wallace S, Wang K, Wang Z, Wassink TH, Wing K, Wittemeyer K, Wood S, Yaspan BL, Zurawiecki D, Zwaigenbaum L, Betancur C, Buxbaum JD, Cantor RM, Cook EH, Coon H, Cuccaro ML, Gallagher L, Geschwind DH, Gill M, Haines JL, Miller J, Monaco AP, Nurnberger JI, Jr., Paterson AD, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg GD, Scherer SW, Sutcliffe JS, Szatmari P, Vicente AM, Vieland VJ, Wijsman EM, Devlin B, Ennis S, Hallmayer J (2010) A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism. Hum Mol Genet 19:4072–4082

    Google Scholar 

  • Antrop I, Stock P, Verte S, Wiersema JR, Baeyens D, Roeyers H (2006) ADHD and delay aversion: the influence of non-temporal stimulation on choice for delayed rewards. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:1152–1158

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Antshel KM, Polacek C, McMahon M, Dygert K, Spenceley L, Dygert L, Miller L, Faisal F (2011) Comorbid ADHD and anxiety affect social skills group intervention treatment efficacy in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr 32:439–446

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arnold LE, Aman MG, Cook AM, Witwer AN, Hall KL, Thompson S, Ramadan Y (2006) Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1196–1205

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M, Coenen A (2009) Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clin EEG Neurosci 40:180–189

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Atladottir HO, Thorsen P, Ostergaard L, Schendel DE, Lemcke S, Abdallah M, Parner ET (2010a) Maternal infection requiring hospitalization during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 40:1423–1430

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Atladottir HO, Thorsen P, Schendel DE, Ostergaard L, Lemcke S, Parner ET (2010b) Association of hospitalization for infection in childhood with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders: a Danish cohort study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 164:470–477

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Back E, Ropar D, Mitchell P (2007) Do the eyes have it? Inferring mental states from animated faces in autism. Child Dev 78:397–411

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bal E, Harden E, Lamb D, Van Hecke AV, Denver JW, Porges SW (2010) Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: relations to eye gaze and autonomic state. J Autism Dev Disord 40:358–370

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Banaschewski T, Becker K, Scherag S, Franke B, Coghill D (2010) Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an overview. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19:237–257

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ben-David E, Shifman S (2012) Networks of neuronal genes affected by common and rare variants in autism spectrum disorders. PLoS Genet 8:e1002556

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bill BR, Geschwind DH (2009) Genetic advances in autism: heterogeneity and convergence on shared pathways. Curr Opin Genet Dev 19:271–278

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bode MK, Mattila ML, Kiviniemi V, Rahko J, Moilanen I, Ebeling H, Tervonen O, Nikkinen J (2011) White matter in autism spectrum disorders—evidence of impaired fiber formation. Acta Radiol 52:1169–1174

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brieber S, Neufang S, Bruning N, Kamp-Becker I, Remschmidt H, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Fink GR, Konrad K (2007) Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:1251–1258

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bucan M, Abrahams BS, Wang K, Glessner JT, Herman EI, Sonnenblick LI, Alvarez Retuerto AI, Imielinski M, Hadley D, Bradfield JP, Kim C, Gidaya NB, Lindquist I, Hutman T, Sigman M, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Singleton A, Kim J, Wassink TH, McMahon WM, Owley T, Sweeney JA, Coon H, Nurnberger JI, Li M, Cantor RM, Minshew NJ, Sutcliffe JS, Cook EH, Dawson G, Buxbaum JD, Grant SF, Schellenberg GD, Geschwind DH, Hakonarson H (2009) Genome-wide analyses of exonic copy number variants in a family-based study point to novel autism susceptibility genes. PLoS Genet 5:e1000536

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Buhler E, Bachmann C, Goyert H, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Kamp-Becker I (2011) Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by means of inhibitory control and ‘theory of mind’. J Autism Dev Disord 41:1718–1726

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bush G (2011) Cingulate, frontal, and parietal cortical dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 69:1160–1167

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castellanos FX, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Milham MP, Tannock R (2006) Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction. Trends Cogn Sci 10:117–123

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castellanos FX, Kelly C, Milham MP (2009) The restless brain: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, resting-state functional connectivity, and intrasubject variability. Can J Psychiatry 54:665–672

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng Y, Chou KH, Fan YT, Lin CP (2011) ANS: aberrant neurodevelopment of the social cognition network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One 6:e18905

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Christ SE, Holt DD, White DA, Green L (2007) Inhibitory control in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 37:1155–1165

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Christakou A, Murphy CM, Chantiluke K, Cubillo AI, Smith AB, Giampietro V, Daly E, Ecker C, Robertson D, Murphy DG, Rubia K (2012) Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism. Mol Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print]

  • Cohen MJ, Meador KJ, Browning N, Baker GA, Clayton-Smith J, Kalayjian LA, Kanner A, Liporace JD, Pennell PB, Privitera M, Loring DW (2011) Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 3 years. Epilepsy Behav 22:240–246

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corbett BA, Constantine LJ (2006) Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: assessing attention and response control with the integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test. Child Neuropsychol 12:335–348

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corbett BA, Kantor AB, Schulman H, Walker WL, Lit L, Ashwood P, Rocke DM, Sharp FR (2007) A proteomic study of serum from children with autism showing differential expression of apolipoproteins and complement proteins. Mol Psychiatry 12:292–306

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Corbett BA, Constantine LJ, Hendren R, Rocke D, Ozonoff S (2009) Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development. Psychiatry Res 166:210–222

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coury D (2010) Medical treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Curr Opin Neurol 23:131–136

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Croen LA, Grether JK, Yoshida CK, Odouli R, Van de Water J (2005) Maternal autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergies, and childhood autism spectrum disorders: a case-control study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:151–157

    Google Scholar 

  • Croen LA, Grether JK, Yoshida CK, Odouli R, Hendrick V (2011) Antidepressant use during pregnancy and childhood autism spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:1104–1112

    Google Scholar 

  • Curran S, Bolton P, Rozsnyai K, Chiocchetti A, Klauck SM, Duketis E, Poustka F, Schlitt S, Freitag CM, Lee I, Muglia P, Poot M, Staal W, De Jonge MV, Ophoff RA, Lewis C, Skuse D, Mandy W, Vassos E, Fossdal R, Magnusson P, Hreidarsson S, Saemundsen E, Stefansson H, Stefansson K, Collier D (2011) No association between a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs4141463, in the MACROD2 gene and autism spectrum disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatry Genet 156B:633–639

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Curry J, Rohde P, Simons A, Silva S, Vitiello B, Kratochvil C, Reinecke M, Feeny N, Wells K, Pathak S, Weller E, Rosenberg D, Kennard B, Robins M, Ginsburg G, March J (2006) Predictors and moderators of acute outcome in the treatment for adolescents with depression study (TADS). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1427–1439

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • David N, Aumann C, Bewernick BH, Santos NS, Lehnhardt FG, Vogeley K (2010) Investigation of mentalizing and visuospatial perspective taking for self and other in Asperger syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord 40:290–299

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Daviss WB (2008) A review of co-morbid depression in pediatric ADHD: etiology, phenomenology, and treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 18:565–571

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demurie E, De Corel M, Roeyers H (2011a) Empathic accuracy in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Res Autism Spectr Disord 5:126–134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demurie E, Roeyers H, Baeyens D, Sonuga-Barke E (2011b) Common alterations in sensitivity to type but not amount of reward in ADHD and autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:1164–1173

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Derntl B, Habel U (2011) Deficits in social cognition: a marker for psychiatric disorders? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 261(Suppl 2):S145–S149

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Devlin B, Melhem N, Roeder K (2011) Do common variants play a role in risk for autism? Evidence and theoretical musings. Brain Res 1380:78–84

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dichter GS, Richey JA, Rittenberg AM, Sabatino A, Bodfish JW (2012) Reward circuitry function in autism during face anticipation and outcomes. J Autism Dev Disord 42:147–160

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dickstein SG, Bannon K, Castellanos FX, Milham MP (2006) The neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an ALE meta-analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:1051–1062

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Domes G, Kumbier E, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Herpertz SC (2008) Social cognition in autism. A survey of functional imaging studies. Nervenarzt 79:261–274

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durston S, van Belle J, de Zeeuw P (2011) Differentiating frontostriatal and fronto-cerebellar circuits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 69:1178–1184

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elia J, Gai X, Xie HM, Perin JC, Geiger E, Glessner JT, D’arcy M, deBerardinis R, Frackelton E, Kim C, Lantieri F, Muganga BM, Wang L, Takeda T, Rappaport EF, Grant SF, Berrettini W, Devoto M, Shaikh TH, Hakonarson H, White PS (2010) Rare structural variants found in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are preferentially associated with neurodevelopmental genes. Mol Psychiatry 15:637–646

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elia J, Glessner JT, Wang K, Takahashi N, Shtir CJ, Hadley D, Sleiman PM, Zhang H, Kim CE, Robison R, Lyon GJ, Flory JH, Bradfield JP, Imielinski M, Hou C, Frackelton EC, Chiavacci RM, Sakurai T, Rabin C, Middleton FA, Thomas KA, Garris M, Mentch F, Freitag CM, Steinhausen HC, Todorov AA, Reif A, Rothenberger A, Franke B, Mick EO, Roeyers H, Buitelaar J, Lesch KP, Banaschewski T, Ebstein RP, Mulas F, Oades RD, Sergeant J, Sonuga-Barke E, Renner TJ, Romanos M, Romanos J, Warnke A, Walitza S, Meyer J, Palmason H, Seitz C, Loo SK, Smalley SL, Biederman J, Kent L, Asherson P, Anney RJ, Gaynor JW, Shaw P, Devoto M, White PS, Grant SF, Buxbaum JD, Rapoport JL, Williams NM, Nelson SF, Faraone SV, Hakonarson H (2012) Genome-wide copy number variation study associates metabotropic glutamate receptor gene networks with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nat Genet 44:78–84

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Epstein JN, Brinkman WB, Froehlich T, Langberg JM, Narad ME, Antonini TN, Shiels K, Simon JO, Altaye M (2011) Effects of stimulant medication, incentives, and event rate on reaction time variability in children with ADHD. Neuropsychopharmacology 36:1060–1072

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Evers M, Cunningham-Rundles C, Hollander E (2002) Heat shock protein 90 antibodies in autism. Mol Psychiatry 7(Suppl 2):S26–S28

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Faraone SV, Perlis RH, Doyle AE, Smoller JW, Goralnick JJ, Holmgren MA, Sklar P (2005) Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57:1313–1323

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feuk L, Carson AR, Scherer SW (2006) Structural variation in the human genome. Nat Rev Genet 7:85–97

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Figueroa R (2010) Use of antidepressants during pregnancy and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the offspring. J Dev Behav Pediatr 31:641–648

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flood AM, Julian HD, Wallis P (2011) An investigation into social information processing in young people with Asperger syndrome. Autism 15:601–624

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Franke B, Neale BM, Faraone SV (2009) Genome-wide association studies in ADHD. Hum Genet 126:13–50

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Franke B, Faraone SV, Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Bau CH, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Mick E, Grevet EH, Johansson S, Haavik J, Lesch KP, Cormand B, Reif A (2011) The genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review. Mol Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print]

  • Frankel F, Whitham C (2011) Parent-assisted group treatment for friendship problems of children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res 1380:240–245

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM (2010) Empirically based early intervention programs for children with autistic disorders—a selective literature review. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 38:247–256

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM (2012) Autistic disorders—the state of the art and recent findings: epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic interventions. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 40:139–149

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM, Luders E, Hulst HE, Narr KL, Thompson PM, Toga AW, Krick C, Konrad C (2009) Total brain volume and corpus callosum size in medication-naive adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. Biol Psychiatry 66:316–319

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM, Rohde LA, Lempp T, Romanos M (2010a) Phenotypic and measurement influences on heritability estimates in childhood ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19:311–323

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM, Staal W, Klauck SM, Duketis E, Waltes R (2010b) Genetics of autistic disorders: review and clinical implications. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19:169–178

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM, Asherson P, Hebebrand J (2012a) Behavioural genetics of childhood disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci

  • Freitag CM, Hanig S, Schneider A, Seitz C, Palmason H, Retz W, Meyer J (2012b) Biological and psychosocial environmental risk factors influence symptom severity and psychiatric comorbidity in children with ADHD. J Neural Transm 119:81–94

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Galera C, Cote SM, Bouvard MP, Pingault JB, Melchior M, Michel G, Boivin M, Tremblay RE (2011) Early risk factors for hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention trajectories from age 17 months to 8 years. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:1267–1275

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gargaro BA, Rinehart NJ, Bradshaw JL, Tonge BJ, Sheppard DM (2011) Autism and ADHD: how far have we come in the comorbidity debate? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:1081–1088

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geschwind DH (2011) Genetics of autism spectrum disorders. Trends Cogn Sci 15:409–416

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geurts H, Broeders M, Nieuwland MS (2010) Thinking outside the executive functions box: theory of mind and pragmatic abilities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur J Dev Psychol 7:135–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghassabian A, Bongers-Schokking JJ, de Rijke YB, van MN, Jaddoe VW, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Hooijkaas H, Hofman A, Visser W, Roman GC, Visser TJ, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H (2012) Maternal thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy and the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems in children: the generation R study. Thyroid 22:178–186

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gilman SR, Iossifov I, Levy D, Ronemus M, Wigler M, Vitkup D (2011) Rare de novo variants associated with autism implicate a large functional network of genes involved in formation and function of synapses. Neuron 70:898–907

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gizer IR, Ficks C, Waldman ID (2009) Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 126:51–90

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gjevik E, Eldevik S, Fjaeran-Granum T, Sponheim E (2011) Kiddie-SADS reveals high rates of DSM-IV disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 41:761–769

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glessner JT, Wang K, Cai G, Korvatska O, Kim CE, Wood S, Zhang H, Estes A, Brune CW, Bradfield JP, Imielinski M, Frackelton EC, Reichert J, Crawford EL, Munson J, Sleiman PM, Chiavacci R, Annaiah K, Thomas K, Hou C, Glaberson W, Flory J, Otieno F, Garris M, Soorya L, Klei L, Piven J, Meyer KJ, Anagnostou E, Sakurai T, Game RM, Rudd DS, Zurawiecki D, McDougle CJ, Davis LK, Miller J, Posey DJ, Michaels S, Kolevzon A, Silverman JM, Bernier R, Levy SE, Schultz RT, Dawson G, Owley T, McMahon WM, Wassink TH, Sweeney JA, Nurnberger JI, Coon H, Sutcliffe JS, Minshew NJ, Grant SF, Bucan M, Cook EH, Buxbaum JD, Devlin B, Schellenberg GD, Hakonarson H (2009) Autism genome-wide copy number variation reveals ubiquitin and neuronal genes. Nature 459:569–573

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Golan O, Baron-Cohen S, Hill JJ, Rutherford MD (2007) The ‘reading the mind in the voice’ test-revised: a study of complex emotion recognition in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions. J Autism Dev Disord 37:1096–1106

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grzadzinski R, Di MA, Brady E, Mairena MA, O’Neale M, Petkova E, Lord C, Castellanos FX (2011) Examining autistic traits in children with ADHD: does the autism spectrum extend to ADHD? J Autism Dev Disord 41:1178–1191

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guastella AJ, Einfeld SL, Gray KM, Rinehart NJ, Tonge BJ, Lambert TJ, Hickie IB (2010) Intranasal oxytocin improves emotion recognition for youth with autism spectrum disorders. Biol Psychiatry 67:692–694

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guilmatre A, Dubourg C, Mosca AL, Legallic S, Goldenberg A, Drouin-Garraud V, Layet V, Rosier A, Briault S, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Laumonnier F, Odent S, Le VG, Joly-Helas G, David V, Bendavid C, Pinoit JM, Henry C, Impallomeni C, Germano E, Tortorella G, Di RG, Barthelemy C, Andres C, Faivre L, Frebourg T, Saugier VP, Campion D (2009) Recurrent rearrangements in synaptic and neurodevelopmental genes and shared biologic pathways in schizophrenia, autism, and mental retardation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:947–956

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta AR, State MW (2007) Recent advances in the genetics of autism. Biol Psychiatry 61:429–437

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gustafsson P, Kallen K (2011) Perinatal, maternal, and fetal characteristics of children diagnosed with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: results from a population-based study utilizing the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Dev Med Child Neurol 53:263–268

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hadjikhani N, Joseph RM, Snyder J, Tager-Flusberg H (2006) Abnormal activation of the social brain during face perception in autism. Hum Brain Mapp

  • Halmoy A, Klungsoyr K, Skjaerven R, Haavik J (2011) Pre- and perinatal risk factors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry

  • Hanwella R, Senanayake M, de SV (2011) Comparative efficacy and acceptability of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry 11:176

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Happe F, Booth R, Charlton R, Hughes C (2006) Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain Cogn 61:25–39

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hegde PS, White IR, Debouck C (2003) Interplay of transcriptomics and proteomics. Curr Opin Biotechnol 14:647–651

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henderson HA, Zahka NE, Kojkowski NM, Inge AP, Schwartz CB, Hileman CM, Coman DC, Mundy PC (2009) Self-referenced memory, social cognition, and symptom presentation in autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50:853–861

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hinney A, Scherag A, Jarick I, Albayrak O, Putter C, Pechlivanis S, Dauvermann MR, Beck S, Weber H, Scherag S, Nguyen TT, Volckmar AL, Knoll N, Faraone SV, Neale BM, Franke B, Cichon S, Hoffmann P, Nothen MM, Schreiber S, Jockel KH, Wichmann HE, Freitag C, Lempp T, Meyer J, Gilsbach S, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Sinzig J, Lehmkuhl G, Renner TJ, Warnke A, Romanos M, Lesch KP, Reif A, Schimmelmann BG, Hebebrand J (2011) Genome-wide association study in German patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatry Genet 156B:888–897

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirano M, Rakwal R, Shibato J, Sawa H, Nagashima K, Ogawa Y, Yoshida Y, Iwahashi H, Niki E, Masuo Y (2008) Proteomics- and transcriptomics-based screening of differentially expressed proteins and genes in brain of Wig rat: a model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research. J Proteome Res 7:2471–2489

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holtmann M, Bolte S, Poustka F (2007) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in pervasive developmental disorders: association with autistic behavior domains and coexisting psychopathology. Psychopathology 40:172–177

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holtmann M, Steiner S, Hohmann S, Poustka L, Banaschewski T, Bolte S (2011) Neurofeedback in autism spectrum disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol 53:986–993

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howlin P (2005) The effectiveness of interventions for children with autism. J Neural Transm Supp 101–119

  • Huang CH, Santangelo SL (2008) Autism and serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatry Genet 147B:903–913

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hultman CM, Sandin S, Levine SZ, Lichtenstein P, Reichenberg A (2011) Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Mol Psychiatry 16:1203–1212

    Google Scholar 

  • Ibanez A, Petroni A, Urquina H, Torrente F, Torralva T, Hurtado E, Guex R, Blenkmann A, Beltrachini L, Muravchik C, Baez S, Cetkovich M, Sigman M, Lischinsky A, Manes F (2011) Cortical deficits of emotional face processing in adults with ADHD: its relation to social cognition and executive function. Soc Neurosci 6:464–481

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • James S, Montgomery P, Williams K (2011) Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD007992

  • Jensen PS, Hinshaw SP, Kraemer HC, Lenora N, Newcorn JH, Abikoff HB, March JS, Arnold LE, Cantwell DP, Conners CK, Elliott GR, Greenhill LL, Hechtman L, Hoza B, Pelham WE, Severe JB, Swanson JM, Wells KC, Wigal T, Vitiello B (2001a) ADHD comorbidity findings from the MTA study: comparing comorbid subgroups. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:147–158

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jensen PS, Hinshaw SP, Swanson JM, Greenhill LL, Conners CK, Arnold LE, Abikoff HB, Elliott G, Hechtman L, Hoza B, March JS, Newcorn JH, Severe JB, Vitiello B, Wells K, Wigal T (2001b) Findings from the NIMH multimodal treatment study of ADHD (MTA): implications and applications for primary care providers. J Dev Behav Pediatr 22:60–73

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson KA, Robertson IH, Kelly SP, Silk TJ, Barry E, Daibhis A, Watchorn A, Keavey M, Fitzgerald M, Gallagher L, Gill M, Bellgrove MA (2007) Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention. Neuropsychologia 45:2234–2245

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson S, Hollis C, Kochhar P, Hennessy E, Wolke D, Marlow N (2010) Psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children: longitudinal finding at age 11 years in the EPICure study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:453–463

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jones CR, Pickles A, Falcaro M, Marsden AJ, Happe F, Scott SK, Sauter D, Tregay J, Phillips RJ, Baird G, Simonoff E, Charman T (2011) A multimodal approach to emotion recognition ability in autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:275–285

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Junaid MA, Kowal D, Barua M, Pullarkat PS, Sklower BS, Pullarkat RK (2004) Proteomic studies identified a single nucleotide polymorphism in glyoxalase I as autism susceptibility factor. Am J Med Genet A 131:11–17

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kasari C, Rotheram-Fuller E, Locke J, Gulsrud A (2012) Making the connection: randomized controlled trial of social skills at school for children with autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53:431–439

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kates WR, Antshel KM, Fremont WP, Shprintzen RJ, Strunge LA, Burnette CP, Higgins AM (2007) Comparing phenotypes in patients with idiopathic autism to patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (22q11 DS) with and without autism. Am J Med Genet A 143A:2642–2650

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kats-Gold I, Besser A, Priel B (2007) The role of simple emotion recognition skills among school aged boys at risk of ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 35:363–378

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Klein SB, Gangi CE, Lax ML (2011) Memory and self-knowledge in young adults with ADHD. Self Identity 10:213–230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohls G, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Konrad K (2009a) Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behav Brain Funct 5:20

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohls G, Peltzer J, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Konrad K (2009b) Differential effects of social and non-social reward on response inhibition in children and adolescents. Dev Sci 12:614–625

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohls G, Peltzer J, Schulte-Ruther M, Kamp-Becker I, Remschmidt H, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Konrad K (2011) Atypical brain responses to reward cues in autism as revealed by event-related potentials. J Autism Dev Disord 41:1523–1533

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krauel K, Duzel E, Hinrichs H, Rellum T, Santel S, Baving L (2009) Emotional memory in ADHD patients with and without comorbid ODD/CD. J Neural Transm 116:117–120

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kroger A, Hanig S, Seitz C, Palmason H, Meyer J, Freitag CM (2011) Risk factors of autistic symptoms in children with ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 20:561–570

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar RA, Karamohamed S, Sudi J, Conrad DF, Brune C, Badner JA, Gilliam TC, Nowak NJ, Cook EH Jr, Dobyns WB, Christian SL (2008) Recurrent 16p11.2 microdeletions in autism. Hum Mol Genet 17:628–638

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar RA, Sudi J, Babatz TD, Brune CW, Oswald D, Yen M, Nowak NJ, Cook EH, Christian SL, Dobyns WB (2010) A de novo 1p34.2 microdeletion identifies the synaptic vesicle gene RIMS3 as a novel candidate for autism. J Med Genet 47:81–90

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuusikko S, Haapsamo H, Jansson-Verkasalo E, Hurtig T, Mattila ML, Ebeling H, Jussila K, Bolte S, Moilanen I (2009) Emotion recognition in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 39:938–945

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Langen M, Leemans A, Johnston P, Ecker C, Daly E, Murphy CM, Dell’acqua F, Durston S, Murphy DG (2012) Fronto-striatal circuitry and inhibitory control in autism: findings from diffusion tensor imaging tractography. Cortex 48:183–193

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larson MJ, South M, Krauskopf E, Clawson A, Crowley MJ (2011) Feedback and reward processing in high-functioning autism. Psychiatry Res 187:198–203

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Larsson H, Dilshad R, Lichtenstein P, Barker ED (2011) Developmental trajectories of DSM-IV symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: genetic effects, family risk and associated psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:954–963

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • LaSalle JM (2011) A genomic point-of-view on environmental factors influencing the human brain methylome. Epigenetics 6:862–869

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laumonnier F, Roger S, Guerin P, Molinari F, M’rad R, Cahard D, Belhadj A, Halayem M, Persico AM, Elia M, Romano V, Holbert S, Andres C, Chaabouni H, Colleaux L, Constant J, Le Guennec JY, Briault S (2006) Association of a functional deficit of the BKCa channel, a synaptic regulator of neuronal excitability, with autism and mental retardation. Am J Psychiatry 163:1622–1629

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee BK, Gardner RM, Dal H, Svensson A, Galanti MR, Rai D, Dalman C, Magnusson C (2011) Brief report: maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord

  • Lee TL, Raygada MJ, Rennert OM (2012) Integrative gene network analysis provides novel regulatory relationships, genetic contributions and susceptible targets in autism spectrum disorders. Gene 496:88–96

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Timmesfeld N, Renner TJ, Halperin R, Roser C, Nguyen TT, Craig DW, Romanos J, Heine M, Meyer J, Freitag C, Warnke A, Romanos M, Schafer H, Walitza S, Reif A, Stephan DA, Jacob C (2008) Molecular genetics of adult ADHD: converging evidence from genome-wide association and extended pedigree linkage studies. J Neural Transm 115:1573–1585

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Selch S, Renner TJ, Jacob C, Nguyen TT, Hahn T, Romanos M, Walitza S, Shoichet S, Dempfle A, Heine M, Boreatti-Hummer A, Romanos J, Gross-Lesch S, Zerlaut H, Wultsch T, Heinzel S, Fassnacht M, Fallgatter A, Allolio B, Schafer H, Warnke A, Reif A, Ropers HH, Ullmann R (2011) Genome-wide copy number variation analysis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: association with neuropeptide Y gene dosage in an extended pedigree. Mol Psychiatry 16:491–503

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Levav-Rabkin T, Melamed O, Clarke G, Farber M, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Grossman Y, Golan HM (2010) A sensitive period of mice inhibitory system to neonatal GABA enhancement by vigabatrin is brain region dependent. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1138–1154

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leyfer OT, Folstein SE, Bacalman S, Davis NO, Dinh E, Morgan J, Tager-Flusberg H, Lainhart JE (2006) Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: interview development and rates of disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 36:849–861

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liao L, Park SK, Xu T, Vanderklish P, Yates JR III (2008) Quantitative proteomic analysis of primary neurons reveals diverse changes in synaptic protein content in fmr1 knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:15281–15286

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lichtenstein P, Carlstrom E, Rastam M, Gillberg C, Anckarsater H (2010) The genetics of autism spectrum disorders and related neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. Am J Psychiatry

  • Lind SE (2010) Memory and the self in autism: a review and theoretical framework. Autism 14:430–456

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lind SE, Bowler DM (2009) Recognition memory, self-other source memory, and theory-of-mind in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 39:1231–1239

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lind SE, Bowler DM (2010) Episodic memory and episodic future thinking in adults with autism. J Abnorm Psychol 119:896–905

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Linnet KM, Wisborg K, Obel C, Secher NJ, Thomsen PH, Agerbo E, Henriksen TB (2005) Smoking during pregnancy and the risk for hyperkinetic disorder in offspring. Pediatrics 116:462–467

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Losh M, Sullivan PF, Trembath D, Piven J (2008) Current developments in the genetics of autism: from phenome to genome. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 67:829–837

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lou HC (2012) Paradigm shift in consciousness research: the child’s self-awareness and abnormalities in autism, ADHD and schizophrenia. Acta Paediatr 101:112–119

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luman M, Oosterlaan J, Sergeant JA (2005) The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: a review and theoretical appraisal. Clin Psychol Rev 25:183–213

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luman M, van Meel CS, Oosterlaan J, Sergeant JA, Geurts HM (2009) Does reward frequency or magnitude drive reinforcement-learning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Psychiatry Res 168:222–229

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lyall K, Pauls DL, Spiegelman D, Ascherio A, Santangelo SL (2011) Pregnancy complications and obstetric suboptimality in association with autism spectrum disorders in children of the Nurses’ Health Study II. Autism Res [Epub ahead of print]

  • Ma D, Salyakina D, Jaworski JM, Konidari I, Whitehead PL, Andersen AN, Hoffman JD, Slifer SH, Hedges DJ, Cukier HN, Griswold AJ, McCauley JL, Beecham GW, Wright HH, Abramson RK, Martin ER, Hussman JP, Gilbert JR, Cuccaro ML, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance MA (2009) A Genome-wide Association Study of Autism Reveals a Common Novel Risk Locus at 5p14.1. Ann Hum Genet 73:263–273

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maiya R, Ponomarev I, Linse KD, Harris RA, Mayfield RD (2007) Defining the dopamine transporter proteome by convergent biochemical and in silico analyses. Genes Brain Behav 6:97–106

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mandy W, Charman T, Gilmour J, Skuse D (2011) Toward specifying pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Autism Res 4:121–131

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mann JR, McDermott S (2011) Are maternal genitourinary infection and pre-eclampsia associated with ADHD in school-aged children? J Atten Disord 15:667–673

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mann JR, McDermott S, Bao H, Hardin J, Gregg A (2010) Pre-eclampsia, birth weight, and autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 40:548–554

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • March JS, Swanson JM, Arnold LE, Hoza B, Conners CK, Hinshaw SP, Hechtman L, Kraemer HC, Greenhill LL, Abikoff HB, Elliott LG, Jensen PS, Newcorn JH, Vitiello B, Severe J, Wells KC, Pelham WE (2000) Anxiety as a predictor and outcome variable in the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA). J Abnorm Child Psychol 28:527–541

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marco R, Miranda A, Schlotz W, Melia A, Mulligan A, Muller U, Andreou P, Butler L, Christiansen H, Gabriels I, Medad S, Albrecht B, Uebel H, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Gill M, Kuntsi J, Mulas F, Oades R, Roeyers H, Steinhausen HC, Rothenberger A, Faraone SV, Sonuga-Barke EJ (2009) Delay and reward choice in ADHD: an experimental test of the role of delay aversion. Neuropsychology 23:367–380

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marsh LE, Hamilton AF (2011) Dissociation of mirroring and mentalising systems in autism. Neuroimage 56:1511–1519

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall CR, Scherer SW (2012) Detection and characterization of copy number variation in autism spectrum disorder. Methods Mol Biol 838:115–135

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall CR, Noor A, Vincent JB, Lionel AC, Feuk L, Skaug J, Shago M, Moessner R, Pinto D, Ren Y, Thiruvahindrapduram B, Fiebig A, Schreiber S, Friedman J, Ketelaars CE, Vos YJ, Ficicioglu C, Kirkpatrick S, Nicolson R, Sloman L, Summers A, Gibbons CA, Teebi A, Chitayat D, Weksberg R, Thompson A, Vardy C, Crosbie V, Luscombe S, Baatjes R, Zwaigenbaum L, Roberts W, Fernandez B, Szatmari P, Scherer SW (2008) Structural variation of chromosomes in autism spectrum disorder. Am J Hum Genet 82:477–488

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marx I, Domes G, Havenstein C, Berger C, Schulze L, Herpertz SC (2011a) Enhanced emotional interference on working memory performance in adults with ADHD. World J Biol Psychiatry 12(Suppl 1):70–75

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marx I, Pieper J, Berger C, Hassler F, Herpertz SC (2011b) Contextual influence of highly valued rewards and penalties on delay decisions in children with ADHD. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 42:488–496

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McQuade JD, Hoza B, Waschbusch DA, Murray-Close D, Owens JS (2011a) Changes in self-perceptions in children with ADHD: a longitudinal study of depressive symptoms and attributional style. Behav Ther 42:170–182

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • McQuade JD, Tomb M, Hoza B, Waschbusch DA, Hurt EA, Vaughn AJ (2011b) Cognitive deficits and positively biased self-perceptions in children with ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:307–319

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mefford HC, Sharp AJ, Baker C, Itsara A, Jiang Z, Buysse K, Huang S, Maloney VK, Crolla JA, Baralle D, Collins A, Mercer C, Norga K, de RT, Devriendt K, Bongers EM, de LN, Reardon W, Gimelli S, Bena F, Hennekam RC, Male A, Gaunt L, Clayton-Smith J, Simonic I, Park SM, Mehta SG, Nik-Zainal S, Woods CG, Firth HV, Parkin G, Fichera M, Reitano S, Lo GM, Li KE, Casuga I, Broomer A, Conrad B, Schwerzmann M, Raber L, Gallati S, Striano P, Coppola A, Tolmie JL, Tobias ES, Lilley C, Armengol L, Spysschaert Y, Verloo P, De CA, Goossens L, Mortier G, Speleman F, van BE, Nelen MR, Hochstenbach R, Poot M, Gallagher L, Gill M, McClellan J, King MC, Regan R, Skinner C, Stevenson RE, Antonarakis SE, Chen C, Estivill X, Menten B, Gimelli G, Gribble S, Schwartz S, Sutcliffe JS, Walsh T, Knight SJ, Sebat J, Romano C, Schwartz CE, Veltman JA, de Vries BB, Vermeesch JR, Barber JC, Willatt L, Tassabehji M, Eichler EE (2008) Recurrent rearrangements of chromosome 1q21.1 and variable pediatric phenotypes. N Engl J Med 359:1685–1699

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mick E, Todorov A, Smalley S, Hu X, Loo S, Todd RD, Biederman J, Byrne D, Dechairo B, Guiney A, McCracken J, McGough J, Nelson SF, Reiersen AM, Wilens TE, Wozniak J, Neale BM, Faraone SV (2010) Family-based genome-wide association scan of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:898–905

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mill J, Petronis A (2008) Pre- and peri-natal environmental risks for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the potential role of epigenetic processes in mediating susceptibility. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49:1020–1030

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller M, Hanford RB, Fassbender C, Duke M, Schweitzer JB (2011) Affect recognition in adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord 15:452–460

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moessner R, Marshall CR, Sutcliffe JS, Skaug J, Pinto D, Vincent J, Zwaigenbaum L, Fernandez B, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Scherer SW (2007) Contribution of SHANK3 mutations to autism spectrum disorder. Am J Hum Genet 81:1289–1297

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mostofsky SH, Burgess MP, Gidley Larson JC (2007) Increased motor cortex white matter volume predicts motor impairment in autism. Brain 130:2117–2122

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mueller S, Keeser D, Reiser MF, Teipel S, Meindl T (2011) Functional and structural MR imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, part 2: application in schizophrenia and autism. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol

  • Mulligan A, Anney RJ, O’Regan M, Chen W, Butler L, Fitzgerald M, Buitelaar J, Steinhausen HC, Rothenberger A, Minderaa R, Nijmeijer J, Hoekstra PJ, Oades RD, Roeyers H, Buschgens C, Christiansen H, Franke B, Gabriels I, Hartman C, Kuntsi J, Marco R, Meidad S, Mueller U, Psychogiou L, Rommelse N, Thompson M, Uebel H, Banaschewski T, Ebstein R, Eisenberg J, Manor I, Miranda A, Mulas F, Sergeant J, Sonuga-Barke E, Asherson P, Faraone SV, Gill M (2009) Autism symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 39:197–209

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy K (2005) Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: a practice-friendly review. J Clin Psychol 61:607–619

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neale BM, Medland S, Ripke S, Anney RJ, Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Franke B, Gill M, Kent L, Holmans P, Middleton F, Thapar A, Lesch KP, Faraone SV, Daly M, Nguyen TT, Schafer H, Steinhausen HC, Reif A, Renner TJ, Romanos M, Romanos J, Warnke A, Walitza S, Freitag C, Meyer J, Palmason H, Rothenberger A, Hawi Z, Sergeant J, Roeyers H, Mick E, Biederman J (2010) Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:906–920

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen A, Rauch TA, Pfeifer GP, Hu VW (2010) Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain. FASEB J 24:3036–3051

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nijmeijer JS, Arias-Vasquez A, Rommelse NN, Altink ME, Anney RJ, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Buschgens CJ, Fliers EA, Gill M, Minderaa RB, Poustka L, Sergeant JA, Buitelaar JK, Franke B, Ebstein RP, Miranda A, Mulas F, Oades RD, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Steinhausen HC, Faraone SV, Hartman CA, Hoekstra PJ (2010) Identifying loci for the overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder using a genome-wide QTL linkage approach. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:675–685

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nomura Y, Marks DJ, Grossman B, Yoon M, Loudon H, Stone J, Halperin JM (2012) Exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and low socioeconomic status: effects on neurocognitive development and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med [Epub ahead of print]

  • Norman DA, Shallice T (1986) Attention to action: willed and automatic control of behaviour

  • Ohan JL, Johnston C (2011) Positive illusions of social competence in girls with and without ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:527–539

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oldiges M, Lutz S, Pflug S, Schroer K, Stein N, Wiendahl C (2007) Metabolomics: current state and evolving methodologies and tools. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76:495–511

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ospina MB, Krebs SJ, Clark B, Karkhaneh M, Hartling L, Tjosvold L, Vandermeer B, Smith V (2008) Behavioural and developmental interventions for autism spectrum disorder: a clinical systematic review. PLoS One 3:e3755

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pellicano E (2007) Links between theory of mind and executive function in young children with autism: clues to developmental primacy. Dev Psychol 43:974–990

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pellicano E (2010) The development of core cognitive skills in autism: a 3-year prospective study. Child Dev 81:1400–1416

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pelphrey KA, Shultz S, Hudac CM, Vander Wyk BC (2011) Research review: constraining heterogeneity: the social brain and its development in autism spectrum disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:631–644

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pennington BF, Ozonoff S (1996) Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:51–87

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Philip RC, Dauvermann MR, Whalley HC, Baynham K, Lawrie SM, Stanfield AC (2012) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the fMRI investigation of autism spectrum disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36:901–942

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pinto D, Pagnamenta AT, Klei L, Anney R, Merico D, Regan R, Conroy J, Magalhaes TR, Correia C, Abrahams BS, Almeida J, Bacchelli E, Bader GD, Bailey AJ, Baird G, Battaglia A, Berney T, Bolshakova N, Bolte S, Bolton PF, Bourgeron T, Brennan S, Brian J, Bryson SE, Carson AR, Casallo G, Casey J, Chung BH, Cochrane L, Corsello C, Crawford EL, Crossett A, Cytrynbaum C, Dawson G, de JM, Delorme R, Drmic I, Duketis E, Duque F, Estes A, Farrar P, Fernandez BA, Folstein SE, Fombonne E, Freitag CM, Gilbert J, Gillberg C, Glessner JT, Goldberg J, Green A, Green J, Guter SJ, Hakonarson H, Heron EA, Hill M, Holt R, Howe JL, Hughes G, Hus V, Igliozzi R, Kim C, Klauck SM, Kolevzon A, Korvatska O, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Lamb JA, Laskawiec M, Leboyer M, Le CA, Leventhal BL, Lionel AC, Liu XQ, Lord C, Lotspeich L, Lund SC, Maestrini E, Mahoney W, Mantoulan C, Marshall CR, McConachie H, McDougle CJ, McGrath J, McMahon WM, Merikangas A, Migita O, Minshew NJ, Mirza GK, Munson J, Nelson SF, Noakes C, Noor A, Nygren G, Oliveira G, Papanikolaou K, Parr JR, Parrini B, Paton T, Pickles A, Pilorge M, Piven J, Ponting CP, Posey DJ, Poustka A, Poustka F, Prasad A, Ragoussis J, Renshaw K, Rickaby J, Roberts W, Roeder K, Roge B, Rutter ML, Bierut LJ, Rice JP, Salt J, Sansom K, Sato D, Segurado R, Sequeira AF, Senman L, Shah N, Sheffield VC, Soorya L, Sousa I, Stein O, Sykes N, Stoppioni V, Strawbridge C, Tancredi R, Tansey K, Thiruvahindrapduram B, Thompson AP, Thomson S, Tryfon A, Tsiantis J, van EH, Vincent JB, Volkmar F, Wallace S, Wang K, Wang Z, Wassink TH, Webber C, Weksberg R, Wing K, Wittemeyer K, Wood S, Wu J, Yaspan BL, Zurawiecki D, Zwaigenbaum L, Buxbaum JD, Cantor RM, Cook EH, Coon H, Cuccaro ML, Devlin B, Ennis S, Gallagher L, Geschwind DH, Gill M, Haines JL, Hallmayer J, Miller J, Monaco AP, Nurnberger JI, Jr., Paterson AD, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg GD, Szatmari P, Vicente AM, Vieland VJ, Wijsman EM, Scherer SW, Sutcliffe JS, Betancur C (2010) Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders. Nature 466:368-372

    Google Scholar 

  • Poelmans G, Pauls DL, Buitelaar JK, Franke B (2011) Integrated genome-wide association study findings: identification of a neurodevelopmental network for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 168:365–377

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA (2007) The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 164:942–948

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Posner MI, Rothbart MK (2007) Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annu Rev Psychol 58:1–23

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rasalam AD, Hailey H, Williams JH, Moore SJ, Turnpenny PD, Lloyd DJ, Dean JC (2005) Characteristics of fetal anticonvulsant syndrome associated autistic disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 47:551–555

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reiersen AM, Constantino JN, Volk HE, Todd RD (2007) Autistic traits in a population-based ADHD twin sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:464–472

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reiersen AM, Constantino JN, Grimmer M, Martin NG, Todd RD (2008) Evidence for shared genetic influences on self-reported ADHD and autistic symptoms in young adult Australian twins. Twin Res Hum Genet 11:579–585

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rhee SH, Willcutt EG, Hartman CA, Pennington BF, DeFries JC (2008) Test of alternative hypotheses explaining the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:29–40

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson AJ (2012) Review: omega-3 fatty acids produce a small improvement in ADHD symptoms in children compared with placebo. Evid Based Ment Health 15:46

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodriguez A (2010) Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51:134–143

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodriguez A, Miettunen J, Henriksen TB, Olsen J, Obel C, Taanila A, Ebeling H, Linnet KM, Moilanen I, Jarvelin MR (2008) Maternal adiposity prior to pregnancy is associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring: evidence from three prospective pregnancy cohorts. Int J Obes (Lond) 32:550–557

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roeyers H, Demurie E (2010) How impaired is mind-reading in high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism? Eur J Dev Psychol 7:123–134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Romano E, Tremblay RE, Farhat A, Cote S (2006) Development and prediction of hyperactive symptoms from 2 to 7 years in a population-based sample. Pediatrics 117:2101–2110

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Romanos M, Freitag C, Jacob C, Craig DW, Dempfle A, Nguyen TT, Halperin R, Walitza S, Renner TJ, Seitz C, Romanos J, Palmason H, Reif A, Heine M, Windemuth-Kieselbach C, Vogler C, Sigmund J, Warnke A, Schafer H, Meyer J, Stephan DA, Lesch KP (2008) Genome-wide linkage analysis of ADHD using high-density SNP arrays: novel loci at 5q13.1 and 14q12. Mol Psychiatry 13:522–530

    Google Scholar 

  • Rommelse NN, Franke B, Geurts HM, Hartman CA, Buitelaar JK (2010) Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19:281–295

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rommelse NN, Geurts HM, Franke B, Buitelaar JK, Hartman CA (2011) A review on cognitive and brain endophenotypes that may be common in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and facilitate the search for pleiotropic genes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:1363–1396

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ronald A, Simonoff E, Kuntsi J, Asherson P, Plomin R (2008) Evidence for overlapping genetic influences on autistic and ADHD behaviours in a community twin sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49:535–542

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross NA, Gilmour H, Dasgupta K (2010) 14-year diabetes incidence: the role of socio-economic status. Health Rep 21:19–28

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rubia K (2011) “Cool” inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus “hot” ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review. Biol Psychiatry 69:e69–e87

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubia K, Halari R, Cubillo A, Mohammad AM, Brammer M, Taylor E (2009a) Methylphenidate normalises activation and functional connectivity deficits in attention and motivation networks in medication-naive children with ADHD during a rewarded continuous performance task. Neuropharmacology 57:640–652

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubia K, Smith AB, Halari R, Matsukura F, Mohammad M, Taylor E, Brammer MJ (2009b) Disorder-specific dissociation of orbitofrontal dysfunction in boys with pure conduct disorder during reward and ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction in boys with pure ADHD during sustained attention. Am J Psychiatry 166:83–94

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rump KM, Giovannelli JL, Minshew NJ, Strauss MS (2009) The development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism. Child Dev 80:1434–1447

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmitz N, Rubia K, Van AT, Daly E, Smith A, Murphy DG (2008) Neural correlates of reward in autism. Br J Psychiatry 192:19–24

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwenck C, Mergenthaler J, Keller K, Zech J, Salehi S, Taurines R, Romanos M, Schecklmann M, Schneider W, Warnke A, Freitag CM (2011a) Empathy in children with autism and conduct disorder: group-specific profiles and developmental aspects. J Child Psychol Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print]

  • Schwenck C, Schmitt D, Sievers S, Romanos M, Warnke A, Schneider W (2011b) Cognitive and emotional empathy in children with ADHD and conduct disorder. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatry Psychother 39:265–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sciberras E, Ukoumunne OC, Efron D (2011) Predictors of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged 6–7 years: a national longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:1025–1034

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scott-Van Zeeland AA, Dapretto M, Ghahremani DG, Poldrack RA, Bookheimer SY (2010) Reward processing in autism. Autism Res 3:53–67

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sebat J, Lakshmi B, Malhotra D, Troge J, Lese-Martin C, Walsh T, Yamrom B, Yoon S, Krasnitz A, Kendall J, Leotta A, Pai D, Zhang R, Lee YH, Hicks J, Spence SJ, Lee AT, Puura K, Lehtimaki T, Ledbetter D, Gregersen PK, Bregman J, Sutcliffe JS, Jobanputra V, Chung W, Warburton D, King MC, Skuse D, Geschwind DH, Gilliam TC, Ye K, Wigler M (2007) Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with autism. Science 316:445–449

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Senju A (2011) Spontaneous theory of mind and its absence in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroscientist [Epub ahead of print]

  • Sharp SI, McQuillin A, Gurling HM (2009) Genetics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuropharmacology

  • Silani G, Bird G, Brindley R, Singer T, Frith C, Frith U (2008) Levels of emotional awareness and autism: an fMRI study. Soc Neurosci 3:97–112

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G (2008) Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:921–929

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sinzig J, Bruning N, Morsch D, Lehmkuhl G (2008a) Attention profiles in autistic children with and without comorbid hyperactivity and attention problems. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 20:207–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sinzig J, Morsch D, Bruning N, Schmidt MH, Lehmkuhl G (2008b) Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2:4

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smalley SL, Kustanovich V, Minassian SL, Stone JL, Ogdie MN, McGough JJ, McCracken JT, MacPhie IL, Francks C, Fisher SE, Cantor RM, Monaco AP, Nelson SF (2002) Genetic linkage of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on chromosome 16p13, in a region implicated in autism. Am J Hum Genet 71:959–963

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sonuga-Barke EJ (2002) Psychological heterogeneity in AD/HD—a dual pathway model of behaviour and cognition. Behav Brain Res 130:29–36

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Speer LL, Cook AE, McMahon WM, Clark E (2007) Face processing in children with autism: effects of stimulus contents and type. Autism 11:265–277

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stanfield AC, McIntosh AM, Spencer MD, Philip R, Gaur S, Lawrie SM (2008) Towards a neuroanatomy of autism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies. Eur Psychiatry 23:289–299

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stark R, Bauer E, Merz CJ, Zimmermann M, Reuter M, Plichta MM, Kirsch P, Lesch KP, Fallgatter AJ, Vaitl D, Herrmann MJ (2011) ADHD related behaviors are associated with brain activation in the reward system. Neuropsychologia 49:426–434

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • State MW, Levitt P (2011) The conundrums of understanding genetic risks for autism spectrum disorders. Nat Neurosci 14:1499–1506

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stergiakouli E, Hamshere M, Holmans P, Langley K, Zaharieva I, Hawi Z, Kent L, Gill M, Williams N, Owen MJ, O’Donovan M, Thapar A (2012) Investigating the contribution of common genetic variants to the risk and pathogenesis of ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 169:186–194

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Storebo OJ, Skoog M, Damm D, Thomsen PH, Simonsen E, Gluud C (2011) Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD008223

  • Sturm W, Zimmermann P (2000) Aufmerksamkeitsstörungen

  • Taurines R, Dudley E, Conner AC, Grassl J, Jans T, Guderian F, Mehler-Wex C, Warnke A, Gerlach M, Thome J (2010a) Serum protein profiling and proteomics in autistic spectrum disorder using magnetic bead-assisted mass spectrometry. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 260:249–255

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taurines R, Schmitt J, Renner T, Conner AC, Warnke A, Romanos M (2010b) Developmental comorbidity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2:267–289

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tucha O, Walitza S, Mecklinger L, Sontag TA, Kubber S, Linder M, Lange KW (2006) Attentional functioning in children with ADHD—predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type and children with ADHD—combined type. J Neural Transm 113:1943–1953

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tucha L, Tucha O, Walitza S, Sontag TA, Laufkotter R, Linder M, Lange KW (2009) Vigilance and sustained attention in children and adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord 12:410–421

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uekermann J, Kraemer M, Abdel-Hamid M, Schimmelmann BG, Hebebrand J, Daum I, Wiltfang J, Kis B (2010) Social cognition in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:734–743

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • van der Oord S, Prins PJ, Oosterlaan J, Emmelkamp PM (2008) Efficacy of methylphenidate, psychosocial treatments and their combination in school-aged children with ADHD: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 28:783–800

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • van der Zwaag B, Franke L, Poot M, Hochstenbach R, Spierenburg HA, Vorstman JA, van DE, De Jonge MV, Verbeek NE, Brilstra EH, van ‘t SR, Ophoff RA, van Es MA, Blauw HM, Veldink JH, Buizer-Voskamp JE, Beemer FA, van den Berg LH, Wijmenga C, van Amstel HK, van EH, Burbach JP, Staal WG (2009) Gene-network analysis identifies susceptibility genes related to glycobiology in autism. PLoS ONE 4:e5324

  • van Meel CS, Heslenfeld DJ, Oosterlaan J, Luman M, Sergeant JA (2011) ERPs associated with monitoring and evaluation of monetary reward and punishment in children with ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:942–953

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Zomeren AH, Brouwer WH (1994) Clinical neuropsychology of attention

  • Vismara LA, Rogers SJ (2010) Behavioral treatments in autism spectrum disorder: what do we know? Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:447–468

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Newcorn JH, Kollins SH, Wigal TL, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Swanson JM (2011) Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway. Mol Psychiatry 16:1147–1154

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wallis D, Russell HF, Muenke M (2008) Review: genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr Psychol 33:1085–1099

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang K, Zhang H, Ma D, Bucan M, Glessner JT, Abrahams BS, Salyakina D, Imielinski M, Bradfield JP, Sleiman PM, Kim CE, Hou C, Frackelton E, Chiavacci R, Takahashi N, Sakurai T, Rappaport E, Lajonchere CM, Munson J, Estes A, Korvatska O, Piven J, Sonnenblick LI, Alvarez Retuerto AI, Herman EI, Dong H, Hutman T, Sigman M, Ozonoff S, Klin A, Owley T, Sweeney JA, Brune CW, Cantor RM, Bernier R, Gilbert JR, Cuccaro ML, McMahon WM, Miller J, State MW, Wassink TH, Coon H, Levy SE, Schultz RT, Nurnberger JI, Haines JL, Sutcliffe JS, Cook EH, Minshew NJ, Buxbaum JD, Dawson G, Grant SF, Geschwind DH, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg GD, Hakonarson H (2009) Common genetic variants on 5p14.1 associate with autism spectrum disorders. Nature 459:528–533

  • Weiss LA, Shen Y, Korn JM, Arking DE, Miller DT, Fossdal R, Saemundsen E, Stefansson H, Ferreira MA, Green T, Platt OS, Ruderfer DM, Walsh CA, Altshuler D, Chakravarti A, Tanzi RE, Stefansson K, Santangelo SL, Gusella JF, Sklar P, Wu BL, Daly MJ (2008) Association between microdeletion and microduplication at 16p11.2 and autism. N Engl J Med 358:667–675

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weiss LA, Arking DE, Daly MJ, Chakravarti A (2009) A genome-wide linkage and association scan reveals novel loci for autism. Nature 461:802–808

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • White SW, Keonig K, Scahill L (2007) Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review of the intervention research. J Autism Dev Disord 37:1858–1868

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson DA, Best CA, Minshew NJ, Strauss MS (2010) Memory awareness for faces in individuals with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 40:1371–1377

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams D (2010) Theory of own mind in autism: evidence of a specific deficit in self-awareness? Autism 14:474–494

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams D, Happe F (2010) Recognising ‘social’ and ‘non-social’ emotions in self and others: a study of autism. Autism 14:285–304

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams NM, Zaharieva I, Martin A, Langley K, Mantripragada K, Fossdal R, Stefansson H, Stefansson K, Magnusson P, Gudmundsson OO, Gustafsson O, Holmans P, Owen MJ, O’Donovan M, Thapar A (2010) Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet 376:1401–1408

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams NM, Franke B, Mick E, Anney RJ, Freitag CM, Gill M, Thapar A, O’Donovan MC, Owen MJ, Holmans P, Kent L, Middleton F, Zhang-James Y, Liu L, Meyer J, Nguyen TT, Romanos J, Romanos M, Seitz C, Renner TJ, Walitza S, Warnke A, Palmason H, Buitelaar J, Rommelse N, Vasquez AA, Hawi Z, Langley K, Sergeant J, Steinhausen HC, Roeyers H, Biederman J, Zaharieva I, Hakonarson H, Elia J, Lionel AC, Crosbie J, Marshall CR, Schachar R, Scherer SW, Todorov A, Smalley SL, Loo S, Nelson S, Shtir C, Asherson P, Reif A, Lesch KP, Faraone SV (2012) Genome-wide analysis of copy number variants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the role of rare variants and duplications at 15q13.3. Am J Psychiatry 169:195–204

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson VB, Mitchell SH, Musser ED, Schmitt CF, Nigg JT (2011) Delay discounting of reward in ADHD: application in young children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:256–264

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang MS, Gill M (2007) A review of gene linkage, association and expression studies in autism and an assessment of convergent evidence. Int J Dev Neurosci 25:69–85

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J, Zhou S, Yao S, Su L, McWhinnie C (2009) The relationship between theory of mind and executive function in a sample of children from mainland China. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 40:169–182

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yuill N, Lyon J (2007) Selective difficulty in recognising facial expressions of emotion in boys with ADHD. General performance impairments or specific problems in social cognition? Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16:398–404

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The study was partly supported by the EU/BMBF grant 01EW1105 to Christine Freitag.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christine Freitag.

Additional information

Regina Taurines and Christina Schwenck equally contributed to this study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Taurines, R., Schwenck, C., Westerwald, E. et al. ADHD and autism: differential diagnosis or overlapping traits? A selective review. ADHD Atten Def Hyp Disord 4, 115–139 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-012-0086-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-012-0086-2

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Autism
  • Risk factor
  • Reward
  • Empathy
  • Brain imaging
  • Genetics
  • Proteomics