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Wer solche Freunde hat, braucht keine Feinde mehr! Eine Analyse von Großmächten in konfliktiven Kooperationen

With Friends Like These, who Needs Enemies? An Analysis of Great Powers in Conflictive Cooperation

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Zusammenfassung

Dass Großmächte die Politik von kleineren Partnern bestimmen und kontrollieren, ist ein Trugschluss. Vielmehr ist es nicht unüblich, dass Kooperationspartner die Interessen ihres Patrons unterlaufen und ihm sogar schaden. Der Text geht daher der Frage nach, was die Beweggründe von Großmächten sind, mit Staaten zu kooperieren, die ihrer Reputation und ihren Interessen schaden. Zunächst werden theoretische Erklärungsansätze für das Phänomen der konfliktiven Kooperation identifiziert, welche im Anschluss auf die Kooperationen China und Nordkorea sowie USA und Saudi-Arabien angewendet werden.

Abstract

The assumption that great powers exert significant control over their allies and also influence their policies is a fallacy. In fact, it is not uncommon that allies undermine the interests of their patrons and even damage their reputation. This raises the question what actually motivates great powers to engage in cooperation with states that obviously hurt their reputation and interests? The article explores the phenomenon of conflictive cooperation and identifies a set of theoretical explanations, which will help to analyze the relationships between China/North Korea and USA/Saudi-Arabia.

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Abb. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    Er nennt den Anti-Kommunismus als Ursache für das Festhalten an schwierigen US-Verbündeten (Keohane 1971, S. 163). Auf die aktuellen Fälle kann dies daher nicht übertragen werden.

  2. 2.

    Die UdSSR schloss im Oktober 1979 einen Freundschaftsvertrag mit dem Südjemen und im Oktober 1980 mit Syrien (Hubel 1995, S. 144).

  3. 3.

    Im Dezember 1976 und im Mai 1977 unterzeichneten Äthiopien und die UdSSR zwei Militärhilfe-Abkommen. Ab November 1977 kam es zu einer „massiven militärischen Intervention zu Gunsten der hart bedrängten Äthiopier“ (Matthies 1987, S. 243) im Ogadenkrieg gegen Somalia, der nur durch die Zurverfügungstellung von „enormen Mengen an Waffen, Kriegsmaterial und kubanischen Soldaten“ (Matthies 1987, S. 243) für Äthiopien entschieden wurde.

  4. 4.

    „Aside from commerce Saudi Arabia and the United States have few values in common […], the alliance has always been defined primarily by shared threats and enemies“ (Riedel 2019, S. 12).

  5. 5.

    „I have known Prince Bandar and Her Royal Highness for close to 23 years. They are old friends of mine“ (Powell, zit. n. U.S. Department of State 2002b).

  6. 6.

    „We have known each other, all of us, on and off for 20, 25 years almost and we have been through shared moments of crisis together in the Gulf War. So I have strong feelings toward all of these individuals“ (Powell, zit. n. U.S. Department of State 2004).

  7. 7.

    „We are not here to lecture […] Instead, we are here to offer partnership – based on shared interests“ (Trump, zit. n. The White House 2017).

  8. 8.

    Kim Il-Sung hingegen hegte tiefes Misstrauen gegen die KPCh. In den 1930er Jahren erhob die chinesische Seite den unbegründeten Verdacht, dass die nordkoreanischen Kämpfer*innen mit Japan kollaborierten und eliminierten daraufhin 80 % der nordkoreanischen Guerillas. Kim Il-Sung war damals der Führer einer Partisanengruppe und verlor zahlreiche Mitkämpfer*innen (Kim 2017).

  9. 9.

    Im Dezember 1955 warf Kim seinen Widersacher Pak-Il‑U aus der Partei, da er den Parteigeist verletzt habe (Chung und Choi 2013, S. 247). Im August 1956 kritisierten Mitglieder der Yan’an-Fraktion öffentlich Kims Personenkult und erhoben sich gegen seine Wirtschaftspolitik. Danach mussten Yun Kong Hum, So Hwi, Yi Pil Guy und Kim Kang nach China fliehen (Chen 2003, S. 6).

  10. 10.

    Bei der ersten Nuklearkrise 1994 setzte sich Peking für eine diplomatische Lösung ein und befürwortete das Genfer Abkommen (Ming 2012, S. 221).

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Wurm, I. Wer solche Freunde hat, braucht keine Feinde mehr! Eine Analyse von Großmächten in konfliktiven Kooperationen. Z Außen Sicherheitspolit 12, 333–356 (2019) doi:10.1007/s12399-019-00780-x

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Großmächte
  • Kooperation
  • Kooperationspartner
  • China
  • USA

Keywords

  • Great powers
  • Cooperation
  • Patron
  • China
  • USA