Advertisement

Food Engineering Reviews

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 34–45 | Cite as

Novel Drying Techniques for Spices and Herbs: a Review

  • Wei Jin
  • Arun S. Mujumdar
  • Min Zhang
  • Weifeng Shi
Review Article

Abstract

Spices and herbs are important parts of human daily food consumption and play an essential role in seasoning and/or preserving food, curing illness, and enhancing cosmetics. Proper processing is necessary because the fresh produce has high moisture content and often high load of microorganisms. Dehydration is the most common method used to lower moisture content and hence the water activity to a safe limit which prolongs shelf life. However, consumers’ demand on processed products with most of the original characteristics of the fresh plants has increased. Consequently, drying must be executed carefully in the interest of retaining the taste, aroma, color, appearance, as well as nutritional value of the plants to maximum possible extent. In addition to quality considerations, drying efficiency is another key aspect for evaluating drying performance. This article reviews recent developments in the production of high dried spices and herbs. It attempts to detail the relative merits of selected recently developed drying techniques with focus on solar-assisted and microwave-assisted hybrid drying techniques which offer high-quality drying with excellent efficiency. Outlook for future research trends and challenges for dehydration of spices and herbs is also discussed.

Keywords

Spices and herbs Drying techniques Solar Microwave Quality 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the financial support from National Key R&D Program of China (Contract No. 2017YFD0400501), National Natural Science Foundation Program of China (Contract No. 31671864), Jiangsu Province (China) “Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Safety and Quality Control” Industry Development Program, and Jiangsu Province (China) Infrastructure Project (Contract No. BM2014051), all of which enabled us to carry out this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Srinivasan K (2005) Spices as influencers of body metabolism: an overview of three decades of research. Food Res Int 38(1):77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parveen S, Das S, Begum A, Sultana N, Hoque M, Ahmad I (2014) Microbiological quality assessment of three selected spices in Bangladesh. Int Food Res J 21(4):1327–1330Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kivilompolo M, Hyötyläinen T (2007) Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography in analysis of Lamiaceae herbs: characterisation and quantification of antioxidant phenolic acids. J Chromatogr A 1145(1–2):155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Iriti M, Vitalini S, Fico G, Faoro F (2010) Neuroprotective herbs and foods from different traditional medicines and diets. Molecules 15(5):3517–3555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chanchal D, Swarnlata S (2008) Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics. J Cosmet Dermatol 7(2):89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaefer CM, Milner JA (2008) The role of herbs and spices in cancer prevention. J Nutr Biochem 19(6):347–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muller J, Reisinger G, Muhlbauer W (1989) Drying of medicinal and aromatic plants in a greenhouse solar dryer. Landtechnik 2:58–65Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xie L, Mujumdar AS, Xiao HW, Gao ZJ (2015) Recent technologies and trends in medicinal herb drying. http://www.Academia.Edu/download/41682412/Chapter_4 _Recent_technologies_andtrends_in_medicinal_herb_drying-revised_5_December_2015.Pdf
  9. 9.
    Parto N (2015) Case study: pathogens and spices. Queen’s Printer for Ontario, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hamrouni-Sellami I, Rahali FZ, Rebey IB, Bourgou S, Limam F, Marzouk B (2013) Total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants as affected by different drying methods. Food Bioprocess Technol 6(3):806–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamrouni-Sellami I, Wannes WA, Bettaieb I, Berrima S, Chahed T, Marzouk B, Limam F (2011) Qualitative and quantitative changes in the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. leaves as affected by different drying methods. Food Chem 126(2):691–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Doymaz I (2005) Drying characteristics and kinetics of okra. J Food Eng 69(3):275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Y, Zhang M, Mujumdar AS, Mothibe KJ (2013) Microwave-assisted pulse-spouted bed freeze-drying of stem lettuce slices—effect on product quality. Food Bioprocess Technol 6(12):3530–3543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nathakaranakule A, Jaiboon P, Soponronnarit S (2010) Far-infrared radiation assisted drying of longan fruit. J Food Eng 100(4):662–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Balasubramanian S, Roselin P, Singh KK, Zachariah J, Saxena SN (2016) Postharvest processing and benefits of black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, and turmeric. Crit Rev Food Sci 56(10):1585–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sa-adchom P, Swasdisevi T, Nathakaranakule A, Soponronnarit S (2011) Drying kinetics using superheated steam and quality attributes of dried pork slices for different thickness, seasoning and fibers distribution. J Food Eng 104(1):105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crivelli G, Nani RC, Di Cesare LF (2002) Influence of processing on the quality of dried herbs. Atti VI Giornate Scientifiche SOI 2:463–464Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mujumdar AS (2007) Handbook of industrial drying. Taylor & Francis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mujumdar AS, Huang LX (2007) Global R&D needs in drying. Dry Technol 25(4):647–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Onwude DI, Hashim N, Janius RB, Nawi NM, Abdan K (2016) Modeling the thin-layer drying of fruits and vegetables: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci 15(3):599–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raghavan GSV, Rennie TJ, Sunjka PS, Orsat V, Phaphuangwittayakul W, Terdtoon P (2005) Overview of new techniques for drying biological materials with emphasis on energy aspects. Braz J Chem Eng 22(2):195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang M, Jiang H (2014) Recent food drying R&D at Jiangnan University: an overview. Dry Technol 32(15):1743–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Satimehin AA (2014) A mathematical model for deep bed drying of gelatinized white yam (Dioscorea rotundata, Poir). Int J Energy Eng 4(2A):33–39Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Onwude DI, Hashim N, Chen G (2016) Recent advances of novel thermal combined hot air drying of agricultural crops. Trends Food Sci Technol 57(part A):132–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Klemeš J, Smith R, Kim JK (2008) Handbook of water and energy management in food processing. Woodhead Publishing, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karim MA, Hawlader MNA (2005) Drying characteristics of banana: theoretical modelling and experimental validation. J Food Eng 70(1):35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Özcan M, Arslan D, Ünver A (2005) Effect of drying methods on the mineral content of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) J Food Eng 69(3):375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Demiray E, Tulek Y (2014) Drying characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer. Heat Mass Transf 50(6):779–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gümüşay ÖA, Borazan AA, Ercal N, Demirkol O (2015) Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger. Food Chem 173:156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arslan D, Özcan MM, Mengeş HO (2010) Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying parameters, some nutritional and colour characteristics of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.). Energ Convers Manag 51(12):2769–2775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moses JA, Norton T, Alagusundaram K, Tiwari BK (2014) Novel drying techniques for the food industry. Food Eng Rev 6(3):43–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karam MC, Petit J, Zimmer D, Baudelaire Djantou E, Scher J (2016) Effects of drying and grinding in production of fruit and vegetable powders: a review. J Food Eng 188:32–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mohamed HAR, Sallam YI, El-Leithy AS, Aly SE (2012) Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as affected by drying methods. Ann Agric Sci 57(2):113–116Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Buchaillot A, Caffin N, Bhandari B (2009) Drying of lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) leaves: retention of volatiles and color. Dry Technol 27(3):445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Argyropoulos D, Müller J (2014) Changes of essential oil content and composition during convective drying of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Ind Crop Prod 52:118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raso J, Barbosa-Cánovas GV (2003) Nonthermal preservation of foods using combined processing techniques. Crit Rev Food Sci 43(3):265–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Huang L, Zhang M, Wang L, Mujumdar AS, Sun D (2012) Influence of combination drying methods on composition, texture, aroma and microstructure of apple slices. LWT Food Sci Technol 47(1):183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kaveh M, Chayjan AR, Esna-Ashari M (2015) Thermal and physical properties modelling of terebinth fruit (Pistacia atlantica L.) under solar drying. Res Agric Eng 61(4):150–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yaldız O, Ertekin C (2001) Thin layer solar drying of some different vegetables. Dry Technol 19(3):583–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Janjai S, Srisittipokakun N, Bala BK (2008) Experimental and modelling performances of a roof-integrated solar drying system for drying herbs and spices. Energy 33(1):91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Orphanides A, Goulas V, Gekas V (2016) Drying technologies: vehicle to high-quality herbs. Food Eng Rev 8(2):164–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mustayen AGMB, Mekhilef S, Saidur R (2014) Performance study of different solar dryers: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 34:463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Deshmukh W, Varma MN, Chang KY, Wasewarm KL (2014) Investigation of solar drying of ginger (zingiberofficinale): emprical modelling, drying characteristics, and quality study. Chin J Eng. doi: 10.1155/2014/305823
  44. 44.
    Rabha DK, Muthukumar P, Somayaji C (2017) Energy and exergy analyses of the solar drying processes of ghost chilli pepper and ginger. Renew Energy 105:764–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yahya M, Fudholi A, Sopian K (2017) Energy and exergy analyses of solar-assisted fluidized bed drying integrated with biomass furnace. Renew Energy 105:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Belessiotis V, Delyannis E (2011) Solar drying. Sol Energy 85(8):1665–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rabha DK, Muthukumar P, Somayaji C (2017b) Experimental investigation of thin layer drying kinetics of ghost chilli pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) dried in a forced convection solar tunnel dryer. Renew Energy 105:583–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    El-Sebaii AA, Shalaby SM (2013) Experimental investigation of an indirect-mode forced convection solar dryer for drying thymus and mint. Energy Convers Manag 74:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Morad MM, El-Shazly MA, Wasfy KI, El-Maghawry HAM (2017) Thermal analysis and performance evaluation of a solar tunnel greenhouse dryer for drying peppermint plant. Renew Energy 101:992–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tham TC, Ng MX, Gan SH, Chua LS, Aziz R, Chuah LA, Hii CL, Ong SP, Chin NL, Law CL (2017) Effect of ambient conditions on drying of herbs in solar greenhouse dryer with integrated heat pump. Dry Technol. doi: 10.1080/07373937.2016.1271984
  51. 51.
    Rodríguez EC, Fiueroa IP, Mercado CAR (2013) Feasibility analysis of drying process habanero chili using a hybrid-solar-fluidized bed dryer in Yucatan Mexico. J Energy Power Eng 7:1898–1908Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ceylan İ, Gürel AE (2016) Solar-assisted fluidized bed dryer integrated with a heat pump for mint leaves. Appl Therm Eng 106:899–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Şevik S (2014) Experimental investigation of a new design solar-heat pump dryer under the different climatic conditions and drying behavior of selected products. Sol Energy 105:190–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kareem MW, Habib K, Ruslan MH, Saha BB (2017) Thermal performance study of a multi-pass solar air heating collector system for drying of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Renew Energy. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.12.099
  55. 55.
    Mghazli S, Ouhammou M, Hidar N, Lahnine L, Idlimam A, Mahrouz M (2017) Drying characteristics and kinetics solar drying of Moroccan rosemary leaves. Renew Energy 108:303–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mortezapour H, Ghobadian B, Minaei S, Khoshtaghaza MH (2012) Saffron drying with a heat pump-assisted hybrid photovoltaic–thermal solar dryer. Dry Technol 30(6):560–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gan SH, Chua LS, Aziz R, Baba MR, Abdullah LC, Ong SP, Law CL (2017) Drying characteristics of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth by solar assisted heat pump drying. Dry Technol. doi: 10.1080/07373937.2016.1275673
  58. 58.
    Pozar DM (2005) Microwave engineering. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sorrentino R, Bianchi G (2010) Microwave and RF engineering. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vadivambal R, Jayas DS (2010) Non-uniform temperature distribution during microwave heating of food materials–a review. Food Bioprocess Technol 3(2):161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wray D, Ramaswamy HS (2015) Novel concepts in microwave drying of foods. Dry Technol 33(7):769–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wang J, Xi YS, Yu Y (2004) Microwave drying characteristics of potato and the effect of different microwave powers on the dried quality of potato. Eur Food Res Technol 219(5):500–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Li Z, Wang N, Raghavan GSV, Cheng W (2006) A microcontroller-based, feedback power control system for microwave drying processes. Appl Eng Agric 22(2):309–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rattanadecho P, Makul N (2016) Microwave-assisted drying: a review of the state-of-the-art. Dry Technol 34(1):1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zhang M, Tang J, Mujumdar AS, Wang S (2006) Trends in microwave-related drying of fruits and vegetables. Trends Food Sci Technol 17(10):524–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Szadzińska J, Łechtańska J, Kowalski SJ, Stasiak M (2017) The effect of high power airborne ultrasound and microwaves on convective drying effectiveness and quality of green pepper. Ultrason Sonochem 34:531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Łechtańska JM, Szadzińska J, Kowalski SJ (2015) Microwave- and infrared-assisted convective drying of green pepper: quality and energy considerations. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 98:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    An K, Zhao D, Wang Z, Wu J, Xu Y, Xiao G (2016) Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure. Food Chem 197(part B):1292–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lv WQ, Li S, Han Q, Zhao Y, Wu H (2016) Study of the drying process of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) slices in microwave fluidized bed dryer. Dry Technol 34(14):1690–1699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Meetha JN, Muhammadali P, Joy MI, Mahendran R, Santhakumaran A (2016) Pulsed microwave assisted hot air drying of nutmeg mace for better colour retention. J Spices and Aromat Crops 25(1):84–87Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cui ZW, Xu SY, Sun DW (2004) Effect of microwave-vacuum drying on the carotenoids retention of carrot slices and chlorophyll retention of Chinese chive leaves. Dry Technol 22(3):563–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Giri SK, Prasad S (2007) Drying kinetics and rehydration characteristics of microwave-vacuum and convective hot-air dried mushrooms. J Food Eng 78(2):512–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Calín-Sánchez Á, Szumny A, Figiel A, Jałoszyński K, Adamski M, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA (2011) Effects of vacuum level and microwave power on rosemary volatile composition during vacuum–microwave drying. J Food Eng 103(2):219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Calín-Sánchez Á, Figiel A, Lech K, Szumny A, Martínez-Tomé J, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA (2015) Dying methods affect the aroma of Origanum majorana L. analyzed by GC-MS and descriptive sensory analysis. Ind Crop Prod 74(15):218–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Calín-Sánchez Á, Lech K, Szumny A, Figiel A, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA (2012) Volatile composition of sweet basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as affected by drying method. Food Res Int 48(1):217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mihindukulasuriya SDF, Jayasuriya HPW (2015) Drying of chilli in a combined infrared and hot air rotary dryer. J Food Sci Technol 52(8):4895–4904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Naidu MM, Vedhashree M, Satapathy P, Khanum H, Ramsamy R, Hebbar HU (2015) Effect of drying methods on the quality characteristics of dill (Anethum graveolens) greens. Food Chem 192:849–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Antal T, Figiel A, Kerekes B, Sikolya L (2011) Effect of drying methods on the quality of the essential oil of spearmint leaves (Mentha spicata L.) Dry Technol 29(15):1836–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Martynenko A, Kudra T (2015) Non-isothermal drying of medicinal plants. Dry Technol 33(13):1550–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pereira RN, Vicente AA (2010) Environmental impact of novel thermal and non-thermal technologies in food processing. Food Res Int 43(7):1936–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rodríguez J, Mulet A, Bon J (2014) Influence of high-intensity ultrasound on drying kinetics in fixed beds of high porosity. J Food Eng 127:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bušić A, Vojvodić A, Komes D, Akkermans C, Belščak-Cvitanović A, Stolk M, Hofland G (2014) Comparative evaluation of CO2 drying as an alternative drying technique of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)— the effect on bioactive and sensory properties. Food Res Int 64:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mard ND, Boudhrioua N, Kechaou N, Courtois F, Bonazzi C (2012) Influence of air drying temperature on kinetics, physicochemical properties, total phenolic content and ascorbic acid of pears. Food Bioprod Process 90(3):433–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Won YC, Min SC, Lee DU (2015) Accelerated drying and improved color properties of red pepper by pretreatment of pulsed electric fields. Dry Technol 33(8):926–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Figiel A, Michalska A (2017) Overall quality of fruits and vegetables products affected by the drying processes with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. Int J Mol Sci 18(1):71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Changrue V, Orsat V, Raghavan GSV (2008) Osmotically dehydrated microwave vacuum drying of strawberries. J Food Process Preserv 32(5):798–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Boggia R, Leardi R, Zunin P, Bottino A, Capannelli G (2013) Dehydration of pdo genovese basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum maximum L. cv genovese gigante) by direct osmosis. J Food Process Preserv 37(5):621–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Jin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Arun S. Mujumdar
    • 3
  • Min Zhang
    • 1
    • 4
  • Weifeng Shi
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  2. 2.Nestlé R&D Centre Shanghai Ltd.ShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringWestern UniversityLondonCanada
  4. 4.School of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina

Personalised recommendations