Skip to main content
Log in

Ultrasound for Improved Crystallisation in Food Processing

  • Review Article
  • Published:
Food Engineering Reviews Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Within the food industry, controlling crystallisation is a key factor governing food structure, texture and consumer appeal, with some foods requiring the promotion of crystallisation in a controlled manner (e.g. chocolate) and others a check (e.g. honey). Sonocrystallisation is the application of ultrasound energy to control the nucleation of a crystallisation process. The use of power ultrasound provides a useful approach to producing crystals with desired properties. Sonocrystallisation facilitates process control by modulating crystal size distribution and morphology. This paper details the governing mechanisms of sonocrystallisation. Proven and potential applications of the process in foods are reviewed including chocolate, honey, fats and frozen foods. Challenges of process adoption such as scale-up are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Afoakwa EO, Paterson A, Fowler M (2007) Factors influencing rheological and textural qualities in chocolate—a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 18(6):290–298. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2007.02.002

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Alatalo H (2010) Supersaturation-controlled crystallization. Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

    Google Scholar 

  3. Arends BJ, Blindt RA, Janssen J, Patrick M (2001) Crystallisation process using ultrasound. USA patent

  4. Ashokkumar M, Grieser F (1999) Ultrasound assisted chemical processes. Rev Chem Eng 15(1):41–83. doi:10.1515/REVCE.1999.15.1.41

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Basmaci I (2010) Effect of ultrasound and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on liquefaction and quality parameters of selected honey varieties. Master’s thesis, Middle East Technical University

  6. Baxter JF, Morris GH, Gaim-Marsoner G (2001) Process for retarding fat bloom in fat-based confectionery masses

  7. Beckett ST (2008) The science of chocolate, 2nd edn. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bund RK, Pandit AB (2007) Rapid lactose recovery from paneer whey using sonocrystallization: a process optimization. Chem Eng Process 46(9):846–850. doi:10.1016/j.cep.2007.05.015

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Chalmers B (1964) Principles of solidification. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chemat F, Grondin I, Costes P, Moutoussamy L, Sing ASC, Smadja J (2004) High power ultrasound effects on lipid oxidation of refined sunflower oil. Ultrason Sonochem 11(5):281–285. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2003.07.004

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Chemat F, Grondin I, Shum Cheong Sing A, Smadja J (2004) Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem 11(1):13–15. doi:10.1016/S1350-4177(03)00127-5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Chemat F, Zill-e-Huma S, Khan MK (2010) Applications of ultrasound in food technology: processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrason Sonochem

  13. Chow R, Blindt R, Chivers R, Povey M (2003) The sonocrystallisation of ice in sucrose solutions: primary and secondary nucleation. Ultrasonics 41(8):595–604. doi:10.1016/j.ultras.2003.08.001

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Chow R, Blindt R, Chivers R, Povey M (2005) A study on the primary and secondary nucleation of ice by power ultrasound. Ultrasonics 43(4):227–230. doi:10.1016/j.ultras.2004.06.006

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Chow R, Blindt R, Kamp A, Grocutt P, Chivers R (2004) The microscopic visualisation of the sonocrystallisation of ice using a novel ultrasonic cold stage. Ultrason Sonochem 11(3–4):245–250. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2004.01.018

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Delgado AE, Zheng L, Sun DW (2009) Influence of ultrasound on freezing rate of immersion-frozen apples. Food Bioprocess Technol 2(3):263–270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Deman J, Beers A (1987) Fat crystal networks: structure and rheological properties. J Texture Stud 18(4):303–318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Ensminger D (1973) Ultrasonics, the low- and high-intensity applications, vol 19, vol 4. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. doi:10.1002/aic.690190442

  19. Flynn H (1964) Physics of acoustic cavitation in liquids. In: Mason WP (ed) Physical acoustics, vol 1B. Academic Publisher, New York, pp 57–172

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hartel RW (2001) Crystallization in foods. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg

    Google Scholar 

  21. Heertje I (1993) Microstructural studies in fat research. Food Struct 12:77–94

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Hem SL (1967) The effect of ultrasonic vibrations on crystallization processes. Ultrasonics 5(4):202–207. doi:10.1016/0041-624x(67)90061-3

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Hickling R (1965) Nucleation of freezing by cavity collapse and its relation to cavitation damage. Nature 206(4987):915–917

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hielscher (2011) Hielscher—ultrasound technology http://www.hielscher.com/ultrasonics/i1000_p.htm. Accessed 12 Feb 2011, Hielscher—i1000

  25. Higaki K, Ueno S, Koyano T, Sato K (2001) Effects of ultrasonic irradiation on crystallization behavior of tripalmitoylglycerol and cocoa butter. J Am Oil Chem Soc 78(5):513–518. doi:10.1007/s11746-001-0295-y

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Hu A, Zheng J, Qiu T (2006) Industrial experiments for the application of ultrasound on scale control in the Chinese sugar industry. Ultrason Sonochem 13(4):329–333. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2005.05.005

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Kabbani D, Sepulcre F, Wedekind J (2011) Ultrasound-assisted liquefaction of rosemary honey: influence on rheology and crystal content. J Food Eng 107(2):173–178. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.06.027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Kabbani D, Sepulcre F, Wedekind J (2011b) Ultrasound-assisted liquefaction of rosemary honey: influence on rheology and crystal content. J Food Eng

  29. Kaloyereas SA (1955) Preliminary report on the effect of ultrasonic waves on the crystallization of honey. Science 121(3140):339–340. doi:10.1126/science.121.3140.339

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Keshava Prakash MN, Ramana KVR (2003) Ultrasound and its application in the food industry. J Food Sci Technol 40(6):563–570

    Google Scholar 

  31. Kiani H, Sun DW, Delgado A, Zhang Z (2012) Investigation of the effect of power ultrasound on the nucleation of water during freezing of agar gel samples in tubing vials. Ultrason Sonochem 19(3):576–581. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.10.009

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Kiani H, Zhang Z, Delgado A, Sun DW (2011) Ultrasound assisted nucleation of some liquid and solid model foods during freezing. Food Res Int

  33. Kordylla A, Koch S, Tumakaka F, Schembecker G (2008) Towards an optimized crystallization with ultrasound: effect of solvent properties and ultrasonic process parameters. J Cryst Growth 310(18):4177–4184. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.06.057

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Krishna Sandilya D, Kannan A (2010) Effect of ultrasound on the solubility limit of a sparingly soluble solid. Ultrason Sonochem 17(2):427–434. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.10.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Li B, Sun DW (2002) Effect of power ultrasound on freezing rate during immersion freezing of potatoes. J Food Eng 55(3):277–282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Li H, Li H, Guo Z, Liu Y (2006) The application of power ultrasound to reaction crystallization. Ultrason Sonochem 13(4):359–363. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2006.01.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Liang B, Hartel RW (2004) Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate. J Dairy Sci 87(1):20. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73137-9

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Liebl DE (1977) Method of preserving honey. US Patent 4,050,952

  39. Liebl DE (1978) Ultrasound and granulation in honey. Am Bee J (USA) 118(2):107

    Google Scholar 

  40. Luche JL, Bianchi C (1998) Synthetic organic sonochemistry. Plenum Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  41. Luque de Castro MD, Priego-Capote F (2007) Ultrasound-assisted crystallization (sonocrystallization). Ultrason Sonochem 14(6):717–724. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2006.12.004

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Marangoni AG, Rousseau D (1996) Is plastic fat rheology governed by the fractal nature of the fat crystal network? J Am Oil Chem Soc 73(8):991–994. doi:10.1007/BF02523406

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Martini S, Suzuki AH, Hartel RW (2008) Effect of high intensity ultrasound on crystallization behavior of anhydrous milk fat. J Am Oil Chem Soc 85(7):621–628. doi:10.1007/s11746-008-1247-5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Mason TJ (2007) Developments in ultrasound-non-medical. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 93(1–3):166–175. doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2006.07.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Mason TJ, Lorimer JP (eds) (2002) Applied sonochemistry: the uses of power ultrasound in chemistry and processing. Wiley, Weinheim

    Google Scholar 

  46. Mason TJ, Paniwnyk L, Lorimer JP (1996) The uses of ultrasound in food technology. Ultrason Sonochem 3(3):S253–S260. doi:10.1016/s1350-4177(96)00034-x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. McCabe WL, Smith JC, Harriott P (2004) Crystallization. In: Unit operations of chemical engineering, 7 edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York

  48. McCausland L, Cains P (2003) Sonocrystallization using ultrasound to improve crystallization products and processes. Chem Ind 5:15–17

    Google Scholar 

  49. McCausland LJ, Cains PW (2004) Power ultrasound: a means to promote and control crystallization in biotechnology. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 21:3–10

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Mersmann A (2001) Crystallization technology handbook, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  51. Misra NN (2010) Applications of external fields in food and bioprocessing. Masters thesis, CFTRI, University of Mysore, Mysore

  52. Mortazavi A, Tabatabaie F (2008) Study of ice cream freezing process after treatment with ultrasound. World Appl Sci J 4(2):188–190

    Google Scholar 

  53. Myerson AS (2002) Handbook of industrial crystallization, 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn

    Google Scholar 

  54. Nalajala VS, Moholkar VS (2011) Investigations in the physical mechanism of sonocrystallization. Ultrason Sonochem 18(1):345–355. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.06.016

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Narducci O, Jones AG, Kougoulos E (2011) Continuous crystallization of adipic acid with ultrasound. Chem Eng Sci 66(6):1069–1076. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2010.12.008

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Narine SS, Marangoni AG (1999) Relating structure of fat crystal networks to mechanical properties: a review. Food Res Int 32(4):227–248

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Nederveen C (1963) Dynamic mechanical behavior of suspensions of fat particles in oil. J Colloid Sci 18(3):276–291

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Olmo A, Baena R, Risco R (2008) Use of a droplet nucleation analyzer in the study of water freezing kinetics under the influence of ultrasound waves. Int J Refrig 31(2):262–269. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2007.05.012

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Patrick M, Blindt R, Janssen J (2004) The effect of ultrasonic intensity on the crystal structure of palm oil. Ultrason Sonochem 11(3–4):251–255. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2004.01.017

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Perry RH, Green DW (2007) Perry’s chemical engineers’ handbook, 8th edn. McGraw-Hill Professional, New York

    Google Scholar 

  61. Povey MJW, Mason TJ (1998) Ultrasound in food processing. Blackie Academic and Professional, London

    Google Scholar 

  62. Randolph AD, Larson MA (1988) Theory of particulate processes: analysis and techniques of continuous crystallization, 2nd edn. Academic Press Inc., San Diego

    Google Scholar 

  63. Rayleigh L (1884) On the circulation of air observed in Kundt’s tubes, and on some allied acoustical problems. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 175:1–21. doi:10.1098/rstl.1884.0002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Rayleigh L (1917) On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity. Philos Mag Ser 6 34(200):94–98. doi:10.1080/14786440808635681

    Google Scholar 

  65. Riener J, Noci F, Cronin DA, Morgan DJ, Lyng JG (2009) Characterisation of volatile compounds generated in milk by high intensity ultrasound. Int Dairy J 19(4):269–272. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.10.017

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Ruecroft G (2007) Power ultrasound and particle engineering. Crystals for drug delivery and formulation. Chim Oggi 25(3):12–14

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Ruecroft G, Hipkiss D, Ly T, Maxted N, Cains PW (2005) Sonocrystallization: the use of ultrasound for improved industrial crystallization. Org Process Res Dev 9(6):923–932. doi:10.1021/op050109x

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Saclier M, Peczalski R, Andrieu J (2010) Effect of ultrasonically induced nucleation on ice crystals’ size and shape during freezing in vials. Chem Eng Sci 65(10):3064–3071. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2010.01.035

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Sanz P, Otero L, De Elvira C, Carrasco J (1997) Freezing processes in high-pressure domains. Int J Refrig 20(5):301–307

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Sayan P, Sargut ST, Kiran B (2011) Effect of ultrasonic irradiation on crystallization kinetics of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Ultrason Sonochem 18(3):795–800. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2010.11.003

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Sun D-W, Li B (2003) Microstructural change of potato tissues frozen by ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing. J Food Eng 57(4):337–345. doi:10.1016/s0260-8774(02)00354-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Suslick KS, Nyborg WL (1990) Ultrasound: its chemical, physical and biological effects. J Acoust Soc Am 87(2):919–920. doi:10.1121/1.398864

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Syrris (2011) Atlas Sonolab systems. http://www.syrris.com/applications/. Accessed 26 Feb 2011

  74. Talbot G (2008) Chocolate temper. In: Beckett ST (ed) Industrial chocolate manufacture and use, 4th edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 218–230

    Google Scholar 

  75. Thrasyvoulou A, Manikis J, Tselios D (1994) Liquefying crystallized honey with ultrasonic waves. Apidologie (France) 25(3):297–302. doi:10.1051/apido:19940304

  76. Toschev NS (1973) Homogeneous nucleation. In: Hartman P (ed) Crystal growth: an introduction, 1st edn. North-Holland Publishing Company, Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  77. Ueno S, Ristic RI, Higaki K, Sato K (2003) In situ studies of ultrasound-stimulated fat crystallization using synchrotron radiation. J Phys Chem B 107(21):4927–4935. doi:10.1021/jp027840f

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Ulrich J (2000) Crystallization. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley, New York. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0318251918152119.a01.pub2

  79. Van den Tempel M (1961) Mechanical properties of plastic-disperse systems at very small deformations. J Colloid Sci 16(3):284–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Van den Tempel M (1979) Rheology of concentrated suspensions. J Colloid Interface Sci 71(1):18–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Villamiel M, Van Hamersveld EH, De Jong P (1999) Effect of ultrasound processing on the quality of dairy products. Milchwissenschaft 54(2):69–73

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Vreeker R, Hoekstra L, Den Boer D, Agterof W (1992) Fractal aggregation of whey proteins. Food Hydrocoll 6(5):423–435. doi:10.1016/S0268-005X(09)80028-3

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Wohlgemuth K, Ruether F, Schembecker G (2010) Sonocrystallization and crystallization with gassing of adipic acid. Chem Eng Sci 65(2):1016–1027. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2009.09.055

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Zheng L, Sun D-W (2006) Innovative applications of power ultrasound during food freezing processes–a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 17(1):16–23. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2005.08.010

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. K. Tiwari.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Deora, N.S., Misra, N.N., Deswal, A. et al. Ultrasound for Improved Crystallisation in Food Processing. Food Eng Rev 5, 36–44 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-012-9061-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12393-012-9061-0

Keywords

Navigation