Food Engineering Reviews

, 1:133 | Cite as

Applications of Plastic Films for Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables: A Review

Review Article

Abstract

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fresh produce relies on the modification of atmosphere inside the package achieved by the natural interplay between two processes: the respiration rates of the commodity and the permeability of the packaging films. MAP has been a proven technology to meet the consumer’s demand for more natural and fresh foods, which is increasing day by day. Because of its dynamic phenomenon, respiration and permeation take place simultaneously, and it is necessary to design the MAP system and select the matching films to achieve desired atmosphere early and maintain as long as possible. To meet the desired film characteristics for MAP, the different plastic films are either laminated or coextruded. In this modern world, the packaging films of required gas transmission properties are made available through advanced technology. Although the MAP industry has an increasing choice of packaging films, most packs are still constructed from four basic sustainable polymers: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyproylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) for packaging of fresh produce. Polystyrene has also been used but polyvinylidene, polyester and nylon have such low gas permeabilities that they would be suitable only for commodities with very low respiration rates.

Keywords

Modified atmosphere packaging Polymeric films Gas permeation Film properties Packaging films 

References

  1. 1.
    Abdel-Bary EM (2003) Hand book of plastic films. Rapra Technology Ltd., Shawbury, Shrewbury, Shropshri, SY4 4NR, UKGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aharoni Y, Barkai-Golan R (1987) Pre-harvest fungicide sprays and polyvinyl wraps to control botrytis rot and prolong post harvest storage life of strawberries. J Hortic Sci 62:175–180Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aharoni N, Philosoph-Hadas S, Barkai-Golnn R (1987) Modified atmosphere to delay senescence and decay of broccoli. Proceedings of 4th national controlled atmospheres research conference, July 1985, pp 169–177, North CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahvenainen R (2003) Novel food packaging technology, Published in CRC Press, Boca Raton Boston New York Washinton, DC and Published by Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Almenar E, Samsudin H, Auras R, Harte B, Rubino M (2008) Postharvest shelf life extension of blueberries using a biodegradable package. Food Chem 110:120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anzueto CR, Rizvi SSH (1985) Individual packaging of apples for shelf life extension. J Food Sci 50:891–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aradhya SM, Habbibunnisa B, Prasad A, Vasantha MS, Ramana KVR, Ramachandra BS (1993) Extension of storage life of Rasthale Banana under modified atmosphere at low temperature, Paper No., FVP-39. Presented at the 3rd International Food Convention held during September 7–12 at Mysore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Artes-Hernandez F, Tomas-Barberan FA, Artes F (2006) Modified atmosphere packaging preserves quality of SO2-free ‘superior seedless’ table grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 39:146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ashley RJ (1985) Permeability and plastics packaging. In: Comyn J (ed) Polymer permeability. Elsevier, New York, pp 269–308Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Auras R, Harte B, Selke S (2004) An overview of polyactides as packaging materials to food. Macromol Biosci 4(9):835–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Banerjee S, Maier G, Dannenberg C, Spinger J (2004) Gas permeabilities of novel poly (arylene ether)s with terphenyl unit in the main chain. J Memb Sci 229:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Banks NH (1984) Some effects of TAL pro-long coating on ripening bananas. J Exp Bot 35:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Banks NH (1985) Responses of banana fruit to prolong coating at different times relative to the initiation of ripening. Sci Hortic 26:146–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barmore CR, Purvis AC, Fellers PJ (1983) Polyethylene film packaging of citrus fruit: containment of decaying fruit. J Food Sci 48:1554–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bastioli C (2005) Handbook of biodegradable polymers. Toronto-Scarborough, Ontario, Chemical Technology Publishing, Canada, p 533Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beaudry R (2000) Responses of horticultural commodities to low O2: limits to the expanded use of modified atmosphere packaging. HortTechnology 10:491–500Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beaudry R, Lakakul R (1992) Basic principles of modified atmosphere packaging. Tree Fruit Postharvest J 6(1):7–13Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ben-Arie R, Sonego L (1985) Modified atmosphere storage of kiwifruit (Aclinidia chinensis Planch) with ethylene removal. Sci Hortic 27:263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benning CJ (1983) Plastic films for packaging. Technomic publ. Co., Lancaster, PA, 181 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ben-Yehoshua S (1985) Individual seal-packaging of fruits and vegetables in plastic film-new postharvest technique. HortScience 20:32–37Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ben-Yehoshua S, Shapiro S, Even-Chen Z, Lurie S (1983) Mode of action of plastic film in extending life of lemon and bell pepper fruits by alleviation of water stress. Plant Physiol 73:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ben-Yehoshua S, Fishman S, Fang D, Rodov V (1994) New development in modified atmosphere packaging and surface coatings for fruits, ICIAR proceedings-aphnet.org, http://www.aphnet.org/workshop/postharvest
  23. 23.
    Berins ML (1991) Plastic engineering handbooks of the society of the plastic industry, 5th edn. Chapman and Hall, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhande SD (2007) Modelling of respiration kinetics of banana fruits for control atmosphere storage and modified atmosphere storage. Unpublished M.Tech Thesis, Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Billmeyer FW (1971) Text book of polymer science, 2nd edn. Wiley-Interscience, New WorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blakistone BA (1997) Principles and applications of modified atmosphere packaging of foods. Laroisier Booksheller, Librairie, FranceGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brody AL (1991) New developments in modified atmosphere packaging in fruits and vegetables. In: Proceedings of fourth chemical congress of North America. Abstract 75Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burton KS, Frost CE, Nichols R (1987) A combination of plastic permeable film system for controlling post-harvest mushroom quality. Biotechnol Lett 9:529–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Calderon M, Barkai-Golan R (1990) Food preservation by modified atmosphere. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cameron AC, Beaudry RM, Banks NH, Yelanich MV (1994) Modified atmosphere packaging of blueberry fruit: modeling respiration and package oxygen partial pressures as a function of temperature. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 119:534–539Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cameron AC, Boylan-Pett W, Lee J (1989) Design of modified atmosphere packaging systems: modeling oxygen concentrations within sealed packages of tomato fruits. J Food Sci 54(6):1413–1421Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cameron AC, Talasila PC, Joles DW (1995) Predicting film permeability needs for modified-atmosphere packaging of lightly processed fruits and vegetables. HortScience 30(1):25–34Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chaiprasart P (2003) Effect of modified atmosphere packaging by PE and PVC on quality changes of litchi fruits. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 665: II international symposium on Lychee, Longan, Rambutan and other Sapindaceae PlantsGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chau KV, Talasila PC (1994) Design of modified atmosphere packages for fresh fruits and vegetables. In: Singh RP, Oliveira FAR (eds) Minimal processing of foods and process optimization. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 407–416Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Christie GBY, Macdiarmid JI, Schliephake K, Tomkins RB (1995) Determination of film requirements and respiratory behaviour of fresh produce in modified atmosphere packaging, Postharvest Biol Tec 6:41–54Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Church N (1994) Development in modified-atmosphere packaging and related technologies. Trends Food Sci Technol 5:345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Church IJ, Parsons AL (1995) Modified atmosphere packaging technology: a review. J Sci Food Agric 67:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clarke R, De Moor CP (1997) Intelligent polymers for packaging fresh produce. Flex Pak ‘97. 4th worldwide flexible packaging conference. March 18–19, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Coles R (2003) Plastic in food packaging. In: Coles R, Mcdowell D, Kirwan MI (eds) Food packaging technology. Blackwell Publishing, CRC Press, London, UK, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Combrink JC, De-Kock SL, Van-Ecden CJ (2004) Effect of postharvest treatment and packaging on the keeping quality of fresh guava fruit. Acta Hortic 275:539–645Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Couzens EG, Yearsely VE (1956) Plastic in service of man. Penguin Books Ltd., HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Crisosto CH, Garner D, Doyle J, Day KR (1993) Relationship between fruit respiration, bruising susceptibility, and temperature in sweet cherries. HortScience 28(2):132–135Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Crosby NT (1981) Food packaging materials—aspect analysis and migration of contaminates. Applied Science Publisher Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Das H (2005) Food processing operations analysis. Asian Books Private Limited, New Delhi, p 406Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Davies AR (1995) In: Gould GW (ed) Advances in modified atmosphere packaging, new method of food preservation. Blackie, Glasgow, UK, pp 304–320Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Del Nobile ME, Licciardello F, Scrocco C, Muratore G, Zappa M (2007) Design of plastic packages for minimally processed fruits. J Food Eng 79:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Del Nobile MA, Conte A, Cannarsi M, Sinigaglia M (2008) Use of biodegradable films for prolonging the shelf life of minimally processed lettuce. J Food Eng 85(3):317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Del-Valle V, Pilar H-M, Ramon C, Rafael G (2009) Optimization of an equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP) for minimally processed mandarin segments. J Food Eng 91:474–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Exama A, Arul J, Lencki RW, Lee LZ, Toupin C (1993) Suitability of plastic films for modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables. J Food Sci 58(6):1365–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Faber JM (1991) Microbiological aspects of modified atmosphere packaging technology—a review. J Food Protect 54:58–70Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fernando G-L, Olmedilla-Alonso B, Herrero-Barbudo C, Sanchez-Moreno C, de Ancos B, Martinez JA, Perez-Sacristan B, Blanco-Navarro I (2008) Modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) does not affect the bioavailability of tocopherols and carotenoids from broccoli in humans: a cross-over study. Food Chem 106:1070–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fishman S, Rodov Ben-Yehoshua V (1996) Mathematical model for perforation effect of oxygen and water vapor dynamics in modified atmosphere packages. J Food Sci 61(5):956–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fonseca SC, Oliveira FAR, Lino IBM, Brecht JK, Chau KV (2000) Modeling O2 and CO2 exchange for development of perforation mediated modified atmosphere packaging. J Food Eng 43(1):9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fonseca SC, Oliveira FAR, Frias JM, Brecht JK, Chau KV (2002) Modelling respiration rate of shredded Galega kale for development of modified atmosphere packaging. J Food Eng 54(4):299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fonseca SC, Oliveira FAR, Brecht JK (2002) Modelling respiration rate of fresh fruits and vegetables for modified atmosphere packages: a review. J Food Eng 52(2):99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Galdi MR, Nicolais V, Di M, Incarnato L (2008) Production of active PET films: evaluation of scavenging activity. Packag Technol Sci 21(5):257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gaspar JW, Couto FAA, Salomao LCC (1997) Effect of low temperature and plastic films on postharvest life of guava (Psidium Guajava L.). Acta Hortic 452:107–114Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Geesan JD, Browne KM, Maddison K, Sheperd J, Guaraldi F (1985) Modified atmosphere packaging to extend the shelf life of tomatoes. J Food Technol 20:336–341Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Geeson JD, Genge PM, Sharpies RO (1994) The application of polymeric film lining systems for modified atmosphere box packaging of English apples. Postharvest Biol Technol 4:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gonzalez-Aguilar G, Ayala-Zavala JF, Ruiz-Cruz S, Acedo-Felix E, Diaz-Cinco ME (2004) Effect of temperature and modified atmosphere packaging on overall quality of fresh-cut bell peppers. Lebensm Wiss Technol 37:817–826Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gorny J (1997) CA’ 97 proceeding, Vol. 5: Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and MAP. Univ. Calif. Post harvest Hort. Ser. 19Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gorris L, Tauscher B (1999) Quality and safety aspects of novel minimal processing technology. In: Oliveira FAR, Oliveira JC (eds) Processing of foods: quality optimization and process assessment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 325–339Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gorrish LGM, Peppelenbos LW (1992) Modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging to extend the shelf-life of respiring food products. HortTechnology 2:303–309Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Goulas AE (2008) Combined effect of chill storage and modified atmosphere packaging on mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) preservation. Packag Technol Sci 21(5):247–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Guan Wen Q, Li C, Xi HL, Feng HY (2004) Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of Fuji apple. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 20(5):218–221Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Heiss R (1970) Principle of food packaging—an international guide. P. Keppler Verlag K., Heusenstamm, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hernandez RJ, Selke SEM, Culture JD (2000) Plastics packaging: properties, processing, applications, and regulations. Hanser, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hewett EW (1984) Bitter pit reduction in Cox’s orange pippin apple by controlled and modified atmosphere storage. Sci Hortic 23:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Iqbal T, Rodrigues FAS, Mahajan PV, Kerry JP (2009) Mathematical modeling of the influence of temperature and gas composition on the respiration rate of shredded carrots. J Food Eng 91:325–332Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Irtwange SV (2006) Application of modified atmosphere packaging and related technology in postharvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables. Agric Eng Int: the CIGR Ejournal. Invited Overview VIII(4):1–2Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jacobsson A, Tim N, Ingegerd S, Karin W (2004) Influence of packaging material and storage condition on the sensory quality of broccoli. Food Qual Prefer 15:301–310Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jacomino AP, Kluge RA, Sarantopoulos CIGL, Sigrist JMM (2001) Evaluation of plastic packages for guava refrigerated preservation. Packag Technol Sci 14:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jacxsens L, Devlieghhere F, Debevere J (1999) Validation of a systematic approach to design equilibrium modified atmosphere packages for fresh-cut produce. Lebensm Wiss Technol 32:425–432Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jacxsens L, Devlieghere F, De Rudder T, Debevere J (2000) Designing equilibrium modified atmosphere packages for fresh-cut vegetables subjected to changes in temperature. Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol. 33:178–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jaya L (2005) Technology development for production of vacuum dried coconut milk powder. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jayas DS, Jeyamkondan S (2002) Modified atmosphere storage of grain meat fruit and vegetables. Biosyst Eng 82(3):235–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jiang Y, Yuebiao L, Jianrong L (2004) Browning control, shelf life extension and quality maintenance of frozen litchi fruit by hydrochloric acid. J Food Eng 63:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kader AA (1995) Regulation of fruits physiology by controlled and modified atmosphere. Acta Hortic 398:59–70Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kader AA (1997) A summary of CA requirements and recommendations for fruits other than apples and pears. In: Kader A (ed) Fruits other than apples and pears. Postharvest Hort. Series No. 17, Univ. Calif., Davis, CA, CA’97 Proc. vol 2, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kader AA, Watkins CB (2001) Modified atmosphere packaging—toward 2000 and beyond. HortTechnology 10(3):483–486Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kader AA, Zagory D, Kerbel EL (1989) Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 28:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Karel M, Fennema OW, Lund DB (1975) Protective packaging of foods. In: Fennema OW (ed) Principle of food science. Marcel Dekker, Inc, USA, p 474Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kim KM, Ko JA, Lee JS, d Park HJ, Hanna MA (2006) Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf-life of coated, whole and sliced mushrooms. LWT 39:364–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kirklanda BS, Clarkeb R, Paula DR (2008) A versatile membrane system for bulk storage and shipping of produce in a modified atmosphere. J Memb Sci 324:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kirwan MJ, Strawbridge JW (2003) Plastics in food packaging. In: Coles R, McDowells D, Kirwan MJ (eds) Food packaging technology. U.K. Blackwell Publishing, CRC Press, London, pp 4–8Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kong D (1997) Food packaging materials. In: Brody AL, Marsh KS (eds) The Wiley encyclopedia of packaging technology. Wiley, New York, p 407Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Koros WJ (1989). Barriers polymers and structures. ACS symposium series, 197th national meeting of American Chemical Society, April 9–14, Dallas, TX, USA, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kupferman E (1995) Cherry temperature management. Tree Fruit Postharvest J 6(1):3–6Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Labthink (2008) Labthink instruments Co., Ltd., China, http://www.labthink.net/
  90. 90.
    Laffin C, Forristal PD, O’Kiely P (2009) Evolution of CO2 permeation properties of LDPE/LLDPE films upon uni-axial stretching. Packag Technol Sci 22:9–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lambden AE, Chadwick D, Gill CO (1985) Oxygen permeability at subzero temperature of plastic film used for vacuum packaging of meat. J Food Sci Tech 20(6):781–783Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lange DL (2000) New film technologies for horticultural commodities. HortTechnology 10(3):487–490Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lee DS, Hagger PE, Lee J, Yam KL (1991) Model for fresh produce respiration in modified atmosphere based on principles of enzyme kinetics. J Food Sci 56(6):1580–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lee KE, Jin KH, Soon AD, Soon LE, Sun LD (2008) Effectiveness of modified atmosphere packaging in preserving a prepared ready-to-eat food. Packag Technol Sci 21(7):417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mahajan PV, Oliveira FAR, Montanez JC, Frias J (2007) Development of user-friendly software for design of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh and fresh-cut produce. Innov Food Science Emerg Technol 8:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mahajan PV, Oliveira FAR, Montanez JC, Iqbal T (2008) Packaging design for fresh produce: an engineering approach. New Food (1):35–36Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mahajan PV, Sousa-Gallagher MJ, Yuan B, Patel HA, Oliveira JC (2009) Development of web-based software for MAP design. An oral presentation delivered in 10th international controlled and modified atmosphere research conference, Antalya, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Maier C (1998) Polypropylene the definite user’s guide and data book. Plastic Design Library, Norwich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mangaraj S, Goswami TK (2008) Respiration rate modelling of royal delicious apple at different temperature. Fresh Prod 2(2):72–80Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mannapperuma JD, Zagory D, Singh RP, Kader AA (1989) Design of polymeric packages for modified atmosphere storage of fresh produce. In: Fellman JK (ed) Proceedings of the 5th international controlled atmosphere research conference. Wenatchee, WA, USA, pp 1, 225–233Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mark HF (1985) Encyclopedia for polymer science and engineering, vol 2, 2nd edn. John Willey and Sons, New York, pp 177–192Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Marsh K, Bugusu B (2007) Food packaging—roles, materials, and environmental issues. J Food Sci 72(3):R39–R54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Martinez-Romero D, Serrano M, Guillen F, Castillo S, Valero D (2007) Tools to maintain postharvest fruit and vegetable quality through the inhibition of ethylene action: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47:543–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Martinez-Romeroa D, Guillena F, Castillo S, Zapataa PJ, Serranob M, Valeroa D (2009) Development of a carbon-heat hybrid ethylene scrubber for fresh horticultural produce storage purposes. Postharvest Biol Technol 51:200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Massey LK (2003) Permeability properties of plastics and elastomers. A guide to packaging and barrier materials. Published in the United State of America by Plastic Design Laboratory/William Andrew Publishing 13 Eaton Avenue Norwich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Merts I, Cleland DJ, Banks NH, Cleland AC (1993) Mathematical model of a modified atmosphere packaging system for horticultural produce. Sci Tech Froid 3:440–447Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Miles DC, Bistons JH (1965) Polymer technology. Chemical Publishing Co. Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Miller WR, Spalding DH, Hale PW (1986) Film wrapping mangoes at advancing stages of post harvest ripening. Tropic Sci 26:6–11Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mizutani Y (1989) Microporous polypropylene sheets. Ind Eng Chem Res 32:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mohamed S, Ma Ma Kyi K, Yusof S (1994) Effects of various surface treatments on the storage life of guava (Psidium Guajava L.) at 10°C. J Sci Food Agric 66:9–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mohamed S, Taufik B, Karim MNA (1996) Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on the physicochemical characteristics of ciku (Achras sapota L) at various storage temperatures. J Sci Food Agric 70:231–240Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Montero-Calderona M, Rojas-Graub MA, Olga M-B (2008) Effect of packaging conditions on quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus). Postharvest Biol Technol 50:82–189Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mount E, Wagner J (1997) Interaction between product and package. In: Brody AL, Marsh KS (eds) The Wiley encyclopedia of packaging technology. New York, NY, p 415Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Moyls AL, McKenzie D-L, Hocking RP, Toivonen PMA, Delaquis P, Girard B, Mazza G (1998) Variability in O2, CO2, and H2O transmission rates among commercial polyethylene films for modified atmosphere packaging. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 41(5):1441–1446Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Nemphos SP, Salame M, Steingiser S (1976) Barrier polymers. In: Mark HF, Bikales NM (eds) Encyl. polymer science technology, Supplement vol 1. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 65–95Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Newton J (1997) Properties of packages and packaging material. In: Brody AL, Marsh KS (eds) The Wiley encyclopedia of packaging technology. New York, NY p 408Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nichols R, Hammond JBW (1975) The relationship between respiration, atmosphere and quality in intact and perforated mushroom prepacks. J Food Technol 10:424–429Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ooraikul B, Stiles ME (1991) Modified atmosphere packaging of food. Ellis Horwood, UKGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pablo JF-T, Obando-Ulloaa JM, Martínezb JA, Morenoc E, Garcia-Masc J, Monfortec AJ (2008) Climacteric and non-climacteric behavior in melon fruit 2. Linking climacteric pattern and main postharvest disorders and decay in a set of near-isogenic lines. Postharvest Biol Technol 50:125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Parry RT (1993) Packaging requirement of fruits and vegetables. In: Parry RT (ed) Principles and application of modified atmosphere packaging of food. Blacki, Glasgow, UK, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Paul DR, Clarke R (2002) Modeling of modified atmosphere packaging based on designs with a membrane and perforations. J Membrane Sci 208:269–283Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Paull RE, Chen JN (1987) Effect of storage temperature and wrapping on quality characteristics of litchi fruit. Sci Hortic 33:223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Peppelenbos HW, Leven J (1996) Evaluation of four types of inhibition for modelling the influence of carbon dioxide on oxygen consumption fruits and vegetables. Postharvest Biol Technol 7:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pereira LM, Rodrigues ACC, Sarantopoulos CIGL, Junqueira VCA, Cunha RL, Hubinger MD (2004) Influence of modified atmosphere packaging and osmotic dehydration on the quality maintenance of minimally processed guavas. J Food Sci 69(4):1107–1111Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pesis E, Orit D, Oleg F, Ben AR, Miriam A, Amnon L (2002) Production of acetaldehyde and ethanol during maturation and modified atmosphere storage of litchi fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 26:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Peter DP, Dennis WJ, Arman S, Arthur CC (2002) Modified atmosphere packaging of sweet cherry (Prunus avum L., ev. ‘Sams’) fruit: metabolic responses to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature. Postharvest Biol Technol 24:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Pino M, Duckett RA, Ward IM (2005) Single and mixed gas diffusion through polyethylene films. Polymer 46:4882–4890Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Pires ACS, Soares NFF, Andrade NJ, Henrique L, Silva LHM, Camilloto GP, Bernardes PC (2008) Development and evaluation of active packaging for sliced mozzarella preservation. Packag Technol Sci 21(7):375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Prasad M (1995) Development of modified atmosphere packaging system with permselective films for storage of red delicious apples. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rediers H, Marijke C, Luc P, Willemsa KA (2009) Evaluation of the cold chain of fresh-cut endive from farmer to plate. Postharvest Biol Technol 51:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Renault P, Souty M, Chambroy Y (1994) Gas exchange in modified atmosphere packaging. 1: a new theoretical approach for micro-perforated packs. Int J Food Sci Tech 29:365–378Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Richardson DG, Kupferman E (1997) Controlled atmosphere storage of pears. In: Mitcham EJ (ed) Apples and pears. Postharvest Hort. Series No. 16, Univ. Calif., Davis, CA, CA’97 Proc. vol 2, pp 31–35Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Rij RE, Ross SR (1987) Quality retention of fresh broccoli packaged in plastic films of defined CO2 transmission rates. Packag Technol 22(May–June):14–18Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rocha AMCN, Barreiro MG, Morais AMMB (2004) Modified atmosphere package for apple ‘Bravo de Esmolfe’. J Food Control 15(1):61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sacharow S, Griffin RC (1980) Principles of food packaging, 2nd edn. AVI Publishing, Westport, CTGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Saguy I, Mannheirn CH (1975) The effect of selected plastic films and chemical dips on the shelf life of marmande tomatoes. J Food Technol 10:544–549Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Salame M (1986) Prediction of gas barrier properties of high polymers. Polym Eng Sci 26(22):1543–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Saltveit ME (1993) A summary of CA and MA requirements and recommendations for the storage of harvested vegetables. In: Blanpied GD, Barstch JA, Hicks JR (eds) Proceedings of the sixth international controlled atmosphere research conference. New York, USA, pp 2, 800–818Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Saltveit ME (1997) A summary of CA and MA requirements and recommendations for harvested vegetables. In Saltveit ME (ed) In: Proceedings of the 7th international controlled atmosphere research conference, vol 4, pp 98–117, Davis, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sanz C, Perez AG, Olias R, Olias JM (2000) Modified atmosphere packaging of strawberry fruit: Effect of package perforation on oxygen and carbon dioxide. Food Sci Technol Int 6(1):33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Selke SEM (1997) Understanding plastics packaging technology. Hanser, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Serrano M, Martinez-Romero D, Guillen F, Castillo S, Valero D (2006) Maintenance of broccoli quality and functional properties during cold storage as affected by modified atmosphere packaging. Postharvest Biol Technol 39:61–68Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shengmin L (2009) Effects of bactericides and modified atmosphere packaging on shelf-life of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis). LWT—Food Sci Technol 42:286–291Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shirazi A, Cameron AC (1992) Controlling relative humidity in modified atmosphere packages of tomato fruit. HortScience 27:336–339Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Shoji K, Shi J (2007) Microbial and quality evaluation of green peppers stored in biodegradable film packaging. Food Control 18:1121–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Siracusa V, Rocculib P, Romanib S, Rosa MD (2008) Biodegradable polymers for food packaging: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 19:634–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Sivakumar D, Arrebola E, Korsten L (2008) Postharvest decay control and quality retention in litchi (cv. McLean’s red) by combined application of modified atmosphere packaging and antimicrobial agents. Crop Prot 27:1208–1214Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sivakumar D, Korsten L (2006) Influence of modified atmosphere packaging and post harvest treatments on quality retention of litchi cv. Mauritius. Postharvest Biol Technol 41:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Smith S, Geeson J, Stow J (1987) Production of modified atmosphere in deciduous fruits by the use of films and coatings. Hortic Sci 22:772–776Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Smith SM, Geeson JD, Genge PM (1988) Effects of harvest date on the responses of discovery apples to modified atmosphere retail packaging. Int J Food Sci Technol 23:78–86Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sunjka PS, Nieuwenhof F, Raghavan GSV (2003) Extension of storage life of guava using silicon membrane system. Written for presentation at the CSAE/SCGR 2003 meeting Montreal, Quebec July 6–9, 2003Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Talasila PC, Cameron AC (1993) Prediction equations for gases in flexible modified atmosphere packages of respiring produce are different than those for rigid packages. J Food Sci 62:923–934Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tano K, Mathias KO, Gilles D, Robert WL, Joseph A (2007) Comparative evaluation of the effect of storage temperature fluctuation on modified atmosphere packages of selected fruit and vegetables. Postharvest Biol Tec 46:212–221Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Techavises N, Hikida Y (2008) Development of a mathematical model for simulating gas and water vapor exchanges in modified atmosphere packaging with macroscopic perforations. J Food Eng 85:94–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Tharantharan RN (2003) Biodegradable films and composite costing: past, present and future. Trends Food Sci Technol 14(3):71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Tian S-P, Li B-Q, Xu Y (2005) Effect of O2 and CO2 concentrations on physiology and quality of litchi fruits in storage. Food Chem 91(2005):659–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tolle WE (1962) Variables affecting film permeability requirements for modified-atmosphere storage of apple. USDA Tech. Bull., pp 1418–1429Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Valero D, Valverde JM, Martınez-Romero D, Guillen F, Castillo S, Serrano M (2006) The combination of modified atmosphere packaging with eugenol or thymol to maintain quality, safety and functional properties of table grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 41:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Van der Steen C, Jacxsens L, Devlieghere F, Debevere J (2001) A combination of high oxygen atmosphere and equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging to improve the keeping quality of red fruits. Information Hyperlinked over protein (IHOP) 12:17–23Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Van Willige RWG, Linssen JPH, Meinders MBJ, Van der Steger HJ, Voragen AGI (2002) Indfluence of flavor absorption on oxygen permeation through LDPE, pp, PC and PET plastic food packaging. Food Addit Contam 19(3):303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Watada AE, Kim SD, Kim KS, Haris TC (1987) Quality of green beans, bell peppers and spinach stored in polyethylene bags. J Food Sci 526:1369–1635Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Yam KL, Lee DS (1995) Design of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh produce. In: Rooney ML (ed) Active food packaging. Blackie Academic and Professional, New Zealand, p 55Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yasuda H, Clark HG, Stannett V (1968) Permeability. Encyl Polym Sci Technol 9:794–807Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Yoshio M, Takashi H (1997) Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce with a biodegradable laminate of chitosan-cellulose and polycaprolactone. Postharvest Biol Technol 10:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Zagory D (1998) An update on modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce. Packaging International, http://www.nsf.org/business/nsf_davis_fresh/articles_map.pdf
  166. 166.
    Zagory D, Davis CA (1997) Advances in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fresh produce. Perishables Handling Newsletter 90:2–4Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Zagory D, Hurst WC (eds) (1996) Food safety guidelines for the fresh-cut produce industry, 3rd edn. International Fresh-cut Produce Association, 125 ppGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Zagory D, Kader AA (1988) Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce. Food Technol 42(9):70–77Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Zheng Y, Zhenfeng Y, Xuehong C (2008) Effect of high oxygen atmospheres on fruit decay and quality in Chinese bayberries, strawberries and blueberries. Food Control 19:470–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Food EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Process and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Food ScienceUniversity CollegeCorkIreland
  3. 3.Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, NabibaghBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations