International Journal of Social Robotics

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 165–180 | Cite as

Survey of Factors for the Prediction of Human Comfort with a Non-anthropomorphic Robot in Public Spaces

  • David C. May
  • Kristie J. Holler
  • Cindy L. Bethel
  • Lesley Strawderman
  • Daniel W. Carruth
  • John M. Usher


This article presents the results of a literature review and empirical analysis of factors that may influence human perceptions and attitudes toward non-anthropomorphic robots in public spaces. Using data from self-report surveys of 170 adults in a U.S. southeastern state, we examined demographic, attitudinal, and contextual differences in perceptions of mechanical-appearing robots in public settings. Within the limitations of the sample under study, the findings suggest that although important gender, race, age, and contextual differences were uncovered, adults were largely accepting of mechanical-appearing robots in public environments and this acceptance varied little across demographic factors. Additionally, adults were also curious about the potential that robots have to assist humans in those environments. Implications for future research are also presented.


Human–robot interaction Innovative technology Robotics 



The authors thankfully acknowledge the following students and colleagues who contributed their efforts throughout the project: Ethan Hosea, Kayla Huddleston, Bryant Hutchins, Jeannice Louine, Jacob Mason, Ross McCool, John McGinley, Sarah Rogers, Richard Sween, Daniel Waddell, Jesse Williams, and Brianna Wright.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • David C. May
    • 1
  • Kristie J. Holler
    • 1
  • Cindy L. Bethel
    • 2
  • Lesley Strawderman
    • 3
  • Daniel W. Carruth
    • 3
  • John M. Usher
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SociologyMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringMississippi StateUSA
  3. 3.Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS)Mississippi State UniversityStarkvilleUSA

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