Robots can express emotions for better human robot interaction. In this field, NAO robot is a platform widely used. This robot mainly expresses emotions by gestures and colored LED eyes, but, due to its white flat and inanimate face, the robot cannot express facial expressions. This work proposes a pluggable eyebrows device enabling NAO to express anger or sadness while performing other tasks. This device is plug-and-play and directly controllable by NAO’s development environments. Additionally, we developed a platform independent mapping of eyebrows angles with emotions. We first conducted an experiment that qualitatively attests the interest of this device. Three following experiments were conducted to: (1) confirm the relation between eyebrows angle and expressed emotion; (2) evaluate different shapes in order to select the most appropriate one; (3) prove that NAO is able to use the eyebrows to express emotions while performing non emotional tasks.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
(2015) Prolific academic. http://www.prolific.ac/
Bartneck C, Kulić D, Croft E, Zoghbi S (2009) Measurement instruments for the anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, perceived intelligence, and perceived safety of robots. Int J Soc Robot 1(1):71–81
Beck A, Cañamero L, Bard K, et al (2010) Towards an affect space for robots to display emotional body language. In: Ro-man, 2010 IEEE, pp 464–469
Cole J (1999) About face. MIT Press, Cambridge
De Beir A, Cao HL, Esteban PG, Van de Perre G, Vanderborght B (2015) Enhancing nao expression of emotions using pluggable eyebrows. In: Conference proceedings new friends 2015
Ekman P (1993) Facial expression and emotion. Am Psychol 48(4):384
Ekman P (2007) Emotions revealed: recognizing faces and feelings to improve communication and emotional life. Macmillan, New York
Häring M, Bee N, André E (2011) Creation and evaluation of emotion expression with body movement, sound and eye color for humanoid robots. In: RO-MAN, 2011 IEEE, pp 204–209
Johnson DO, Cuijpers RH, van der Pol D (2013) Imitating human emotions with artificial facial expressions. Int J Soc Robot 5(4):503–513
LimeSurvey Project Team/Carsten Schmitz (2015) LimeSurvey An Open Source survey tool. LimeSurvey Project, Hamburg. http://www.limesurvey.org
Mazzei D, Cominelli L, Lazzeri N, Zaraki A, De Rossi D (2014) I-clips brain, a hybrid cognitive system for social robots. In: Biomimetic and biohybrid systems, Springer, New York, pp 213–224
Mehrabian A (1977) Nonverbal communication. Transaction Publishers, Piscataway
Van de Perre G, Van Damme M, Lefeber D, Vanderborght B (2015) Development of a generic method to generate upper-body emotional expressions for different social robots. Adv Robot 29(9):597–609
Pioggia G, Ahluwalia A, Carpi F, Marchetti A, Ferro M, Rocchia W, De Rossi D (2004) Face: facial automaton for conveying emotions. Appl Bionics Biomech 1(2):91–100
Posner J, Russell JA, Peterson BS (2005) The circumplex model of affect an integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 17:715
R Core Team (2015) R A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org
Russell JA (1978) Evidence of convergent validity on the dimensions of affect. J Pers Soc Psychol 36(10):1152
Saldien J, Goris K, Vanderborght B, Vanderfaeillie J, Lefeber D (2010) Expressing emotions with the social robot probo. Int J Soc Robot 2(4):377–389
Saldien J, Vanderborght B, Goris K, Van Damme M, Lefeber D (2014) A motion system for social and animated robots. Int J Adv Robot Syst 11:1
Siciliano B, Khatib O (2008) Springer handbook of robotics. Springer, New York
The work leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission 7th Framework Program as a part of the project DREAM Grant No. 611391.
About this article
Cite this article
De Beir, A., Cao, H., Gómez Esteban, P. et al. Enhancing Emotional Facial Expressiveness on NAO. Int J of Soc Robotics 8, 513–521 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-016-0363-x
- Facial expressions
- Nao robot
- Humanoid robot
- Eyes color