International Journal of Social Robotics

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 201–217

Generation and Evaluation of Communicative Robot Gesture

  • Maha Salem
  • Stefan Kopp
  • Ipke Wachsmuth
  • Katharina Rohlfing
  • Frank Joublin

DOI: 10.1007/s12369-011-0124-9

Cite this article as:
Salem, M., Kopp, S., Wachsmuth, I. et al. Int J of Soc Robotics (2012) 4: 201. doi:10.1007/s12369-011-0124-9


How is communicative gesture behavior in robots perceived by humans? Although gesture is crucial in social interaction, this research question is still largely unexplored in the field of social robotics. Thus, the main objective of the present work is to investigate how gestural machine behaviors can be used to design more natural communication in social robots. The chosen approach is twofold. Firstly, the technical challenges encountered when implementing a speech-gesture generation model on a robotic platform are tackled. We present a framework that enables the humanoid robot to flexibly produce synthetic speech and co-verbal hand and arm gestures at run-time, while not being limited to a predefined repertoire of motor actions. Secondly, the achieved flexibility in robot gesture is exploited in controlled experiments. To gain a deeper understanding of how communicative robot gesture might impact and shape human perception and evaluation of human-robot interaction, we conducted a between-subjects experimental study using the humanoid robot in a joint task scenario. We manipulated the non-verbal behaviors of the robot in three experimental conditions, so that it would refer to objects by utilizing either (1) unimodal (i.e., speech only) utterances, (2) congruent multimodal (i.e., semantically matching speech and gesture) or (3) incongruent multimodal (i.e., semantically non-matching speech and gesture) utterances. Our findings reveal that the robot is evaluated more positively when non-verbal behaviors such as hand and arm gestures are displayed along with speech, even if they do not semantically match the spoken utterance.


Multimodal interaction and conversational skills Non-verbal cues and expressiveness Social human-robot interaction Robot companions and social robots 

Copyright information

© Springer Science & Business Media BV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maha Salem
    • 1
  • Stefan Kopp
    • 2
  • Ipke Wachsmuth
    • 3
  • Katharina Rohlfing
    • 4
  • Frank Joublin
    • 5
  1. 1.Research Institute for Cognition and RoboticsBielefeldGermany
  2. 2.Sociable Agents GroupBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  3. 3.Artificial Intelligence GroupBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  4. 4.Emergentist Semantics GroupBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany
  5. 5.Honda Research Institute EuropeOffenbachGermany

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