In commercial date palm cultivation, artificial pollination is an expensive necessary agronomic practice. For effective pollination, timely availability of pollen is a requisite; however, in time of pollen scarcity and/or in need of higher amount of pollen for mechanical pollination, dilution of pollen with adjuvant is an effective approach. We tested efficiency of pollination by mixing pollen with different low cost and easily available adjuvants, viz. Maida flour, wheat flour, talcum powder, bajra flour, ash and marble dust in 1:9 and 1:19 ratio, over control (no adjuvant) and evaluate their efficacy in sustaining the fruit set and yield. Our results suggest that all of the experimented adjuvants can be diluted up to 1:9 ratio; however, talcum powder can be diluted up to 1:19 without reducing fruit yield.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abu-Zahra, T.R., and M.A. Shatnawai. 2019. New pollination technique in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. “Barhee” and “Medjol” under Jordan Valley Conditions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 19 (1): 37–42.
Al-Wusaibai, N.A., A.B. Abdallah, M.S. Al-Husainai, H. Al-Salman, and M. Elballaj. 2012. A comparative study between mechanical and manual pollination in two premier Saudi Arabian date palm cultivars. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 5 (4): 2487–2490.
Anonymous. 2018. Horticultural cultivation of crops, area and production. Director of Horticulture, Agriculture, Farmer’s Welfare and Co-operation Department, Government of Gujarat. Retrieved from https://doh.gujarat.gov.in/horticulture-census.htm on 25th March, 2019.
Arnold, J. B. 2019. ggthemes: Extra Themes, Scales and Geos for ‘ggplot2’. R package version 4.2.0. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ggthemes.
Attalla, A.M., M.O. Warring, and F.A. Sharaan. 1998. Suitable time of two Saudi date palm cultivars. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research 43 (3): 203–208.
Awad, M.A. 2006. Water spray as a potential thinning agent for date palm flowers (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Lulu. Scientia Horticulturae 111: 44–48.
Awad, M.A. 2010. Pollination of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) cv Khenazy by pollen grain-water suspension spray. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 8 (3 & 4): 313–317.
Awad, M.A. 2011. Pollination of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. “Lulu” with pollen grains-water suspension. Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 22 (1): 91–101.
Baidiyavadra, D.A., C.M. Muralidharan, and K.M. Sharma. 2019. Fresh date production in Kachchh (India): Challenges and future prospects. Medicinal Plants 11 (3): 218–227.
Barfod, A.S., M. Hagen, and F. Borchsenius. 2011. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae). Annals of Botany 108: 1503–1516.
Bashir, M.A., M. Ahmada, M.I. Khan, and F. Altaf. 2012. To economize date palm pollens through different diluting materials, in Aseel CV. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 28 (2): 197–200.
Cohen, Y., F. Slavkovic, D. Birger, A. Greenberg, A. Sadowsky, M. Ish-Shalom, M. Benita, T. Ticuchinski, Y. Avnat, and R. Kamenetsky. 2016. Fertilization and fruit setting in date palm: biological and technological challenges. Acta Horticulturae 1130: 351–358. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1130.53.
El-Mardi, M. O., E. C. Consolacion, K. M. Abdelbasit, M. Al-Marozouqi, and O. S. Al-Mantheri. 1998. Evaluation of the pollination method and pollen concentration on chemical characteristics of date fruit from Fard cultivar. First international conference on date palms, Al-Ain, UAE, March 8–10. Retrieved on 29th March, 2020 from pubhort.org/datepalm.
El-Mardi, M.O., S.N. Labiad, E. Consolacion, and K.M. Addelbasitm. 1995. Effect of pollination methods and pollen dilution on some chemical constituents of Fard dates at different stages of fruit development. Emirates Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v7i1.5351.
El-Refaey, F., and A. El-Dengawy. 2017. Improvement of the pollination technique in date palm. Journal of Plant Production 8 (2): 307–314.
Haffar, I., A. Juburi, and M.H. Ahmed. 1997. Effect of pollination frequency and pollen concentration on yield and fruit characteristics of mechanically pollinated date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera var. Khalas). Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 68: 11–14.
Ibrahim, A.A. 1988. Field performance evaluation of different types of mechanical pollination systems of date palm. Journal of Agricultural Water Resources Research 7 (1): 61–82.
Johnson, D.V., J.M. Al-Khayri, and S.M. Jain. 2013. Seedling date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) as genetic resources. Emeritus Journal of Food and Agriculture 25 (11): 809–830. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v25i11.16497.
Khalil, A. R. and A. M. Al-Shawaan. 1983. Wheat flour and sugar solution media as carrier for date palm pollen grains. In Proceedings of first symposium on the date palm. King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia, pp 120–125.
Lord, E.M., and S.D. Russell. 2002. The mechanisms of pollination and fertilization in plants. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 18: 81–105. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.cellbio.18.012502.083438.
Mendiburu, F. 2019. Agricolae: Statistical procedures for Agricultural Research. R package version 1.3-1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=agricolae.
Muralidharan, C. M., C. N. Panchal, D. A. Baidiyavadra, K. M. Sharma, and P. Verma. 2020. Pistillate receptivity of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Barhee. Sugar Tech. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-020-00859-2.
Muralidharan, C. M., S. B. S. Tikka, and P. Verma. 2008. Date palm cultivation in Kachchh. Technical Bulletin No. 8, Date palm Research Station, S. D. Agricultural University, Mundra-Kachchh.
Nasir, M.A., I.H. Mian, and M. Asghar. 1997. Effect of date pollen mixed with wheat flour and tap water on date yield. Journal of Agricultural Research 35 (1–2): 63–67.
R Core Team. 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
Shabana, R.H., E.A. Mawlood, and Th Khalil. 1988. Date palm mechanical pollination Report. Baghdad, Iraq: Agric. Res. Water Resources Center. Scientific Research Council.
Shaheen, M.A. 2004. Evaluation of date palm males using pollen viability and ultrastructure. Acta Horticulturae 632: 37–43.
Sharma, K.M., C.M. Muralidharan, D.A. Baidiyavadra, and C.N. Panchal. 2019. Effect of different time of pollination in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Barhee. Environment and Ecology 37 (4B): 1568–1570.
Singh, R.N. 2018. Date palm: An ideal fruit for health and wealth. Indian Horticulture 63 (5): 17–21.
Vaknin, Y., S. Gan-Mor, A. Bechnar, B. Ronen, and D. Eisikowitch. 1999. Effects of desiccation and dilution on germinability of almond pollen. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 74 (3): 321–327.
Wickam, H. 2016. ggplot2: Elegant graphics for data analysis. New York: Springer.
Wickam, H. 2017. tidyverse: Easily Install and Load the ‘Tidyverse’. R package version 1.2.1. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=tidyverse.
Zaid, A., and P. F. de Wet. 2002. Pollination and bunch management. (In) Zaid, A. and E. J. Arias-Jimenez (eds). Date palm Cultivation, FAO plant production and protection paper 156, Rev.1. FAO of the United Nations, Rome. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/Y4360E/y4360e0c.htm#bm12 on 29th March, 2020.
Zheng, Y.Y., X.J. Lin, H.M. Liang, F.F. Wang, and L.Y. Chen. 2018. The long journey of pollen tube in the pistil. International Journal of Molecular Science 19: 3529. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113529.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Consent for Publication
The experiment was conducted at Date palm Research Station, Mundra, under the jurisdiction of Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, and the authors have consent to publish the outcome of the experiment.
Human and Animal Rights Statement
The experiment does not involve any humans or animals, and thus, no such consent was taken. No commercial interest of any author or institution is involved
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Sharma, K.M., Muralidharan, C.M., Baidiyavadra, D.A. et al. Evaluation of Potentiality of Different Adjuvants for Date Palm Pollination and Fruit Set. Sugar Tech 23, 139–145 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-020-00885-0
- Date yield
- Fruit set
- Pollen dilution
- Talcum powder