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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), a C4 annual grass, known by the terminologies ‘sugarcane of the desert’ and ‘camel among crops’ for its hardy, drought characteristics. It can be grown in tropical, subtropical, temperate and semi-arid regions and also in marginal soils. It has many salient features such as rapid growth, high sugar content (10–15%), higher biomass, wider adaptability to harsh agro-climatic conditions and metal absorbing property. Sweet sorghum is a variety of S. bicolor generally cultivated for syrup and also forage and feed. It has sweet juicy stalks and higher sugar levels (fructose, glucose and sucrose) than grain sorghum. Sweet sorghum is an efficient biofuel feedstock in terms of water use efficiency, radiation use efficiency and can be used for food, feed, fodder, fuel, fibre and bio-products development. So, it can serve as a candidate feedstock for improving bio-economy via bio-ethanol ‘sweet fuel’ production and also a wide array of co-product generation. Of late, phytoremediation potential of sweet sorghum is also been explored. Further, many consider it as a resilient and model bioenergy feedstock that has wider adaptation and also a climate change ready smart crop without significant trade-offs on food cycle. In the past, commercial-scale plantations and processing, both on primary and secondary processing, have been reported. The research articles, specialized reviews on different aspects of sweet sorghum value chain with an emphasis on bio-product development, and success stories of global importance published in the journal “Sugar Tech” will be really imperative and valuable in redefining the R&D needs of the biofuel producing countries. This special issue entitled “NOVEL PATHWAYS OF SWEET SORGHUM UTILIZATION AND BIO-PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT” is intended to solicit high-quality, original research contributions on different aspects of sweet sorghum—genetics, breeding, hybrids, physiology, microbiology, biotechnology, production, processing, conversion, utilization and bio-products—so as to provide an authoritative scientific backdrop for informed discussion and debates on sweet sorghum and also share our vision for a scientifically driven growth of sweet sorghum-based industries around the globe, albeit current lower global crude oil prices subdued biofuel industry growth. We are sure this special issue will usher furthering the sweet sorghum production and processing technologies to a new level for harnessing the full potential of this novel feedstock in the future.