Sorghum is one of the bioenergy crops, with considerable tolerance to salinity. The current work was undertaken to assess the salinity tolerance of brown midrib (bmr) mutant lines and wild parents for biomass composition and potential theoretical ethanol yield (TEY). The variation for salinity levels in field plots was significant; hence, salinity screening under controlled environment was performed. The mutant line N 600 (bmr-12) had performed better under field screening (at 10 dS m−1) with fresh stalk yield of 17.3 t ha−1, dry stalk yield of 7.4 t ha−1, and grain yield of 2.0 t ha−1. The performance of bmr-6 and bmr-12 mutant alleles showed that bmr-12 allele, i.e., N 597 and N 600 had performed better than its wild types EHS and Atlas, respectively, for relative fresh and dry biomass index at 20, 40 and 80 days after imposing 150 mM salinity stress. The lines N 597 (13.05 cm2 g−1), N 596 (6.84 cm2 g−1) and N 593 (7.39 cm2 g−1) recorded the highest specific leaf area at 20, 40 and 80 days of stress, respectively. High membrane stability index was recorded in mutants N 596 (bmr-6-85.33%) and N 597 (bmr-12-84.78%) with EHS though under different genetic background under stress. Higher TEY was recorded in N 597 (2219.82 L ha−1), N 600 (2159.79 L ha−1), N 595 (2019.03 L ha−1) and N 598 (1945.33 L ha−1) under stressed conditions, with a moderate reduction of 47.85 and 47.50% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, in TEY.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
- Bmr :
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
Soil plant analysis development
Specific leaf area
Membrane stability index
Seedling height reduction
Relative fresh biomass index
Relative dry biomass index
Neutral detergent fiber
Acid detergent fiber
Acid detergent lignin
Theoretical ethanol yields
Ali, Muhammad Amjad, Amjad Abbas, Shahid Niaz, M. Zulkiffal, and Shiraz Ali. 2009. Morpho-physiological criteria for drought tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) at seedling and post-anthesis stages. International Journal Agricultural Biology 11: 674–680.
Ali, Siddig Abdelaziz Mohamed, Abdellatif Yousif Idris, and Mohamed Salih Ahmed Abo. 2014. Effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Journal of Plant and Pest Science 1: 01–08.
Almodares, A., M.R. Hadi, and H. Ahmadpour. 2008. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different salinity levels. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(22): 4051–4055.
Athar, H.R., and M. Ashraf. 2009. Strategies for crop improvement against salinity and drought stress: An overview. In Salinity and Water Stress 1: 16.
Bashir, F., M. Ali, K. Hussain, A. Majeed, and K. Nawaz. 2011. Morphological variations in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under different levels of Na2SO4 salinity. Botany Research International 4: 01–03.
Burton, Rachel A., and Geoffrey B. Fincher. 2014. Plant cell wall engineering: Applications in biofuel production and improved human health. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 26: 79–84.
Cherney, J.H., J.D. Axtell, M.M. Hassen, and K.S. Anliker. 1988. Forage quality characterization of a chemically induced brown-midrib mutant in pearl millet. Crop Science 28: 783–787.
Dien, Bruce S., Gautam Sarath, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, Scott E. Sattler, Han Chen, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Nancy N. Nichols, and Michael A. Cotta. 2009. Improved sugar conversion and ethanol yield for forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) lines with reduced lignin contents. BioEnergy Research 2: 153–164.
de Lacerda, Claudivan, José Cambraia Feitosa, Marco Antonio Oliva, and Hugo Alberto Ruiz. 2005. Changes in growth and in solute concentrations in sorghum leaves and roots during salt stress recovery. Environmental and Experimental Botany 54: 69–76.
De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda, Onofrio Leoni, Lorena Malaguti, Roberta Bernardi, and Luca Lazzeri. 2011. A simple analytical method for dhurrin content evaluation in cyanogenic plants for their utilization in fodder and biofumigation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(15): 8065–8069.
Giaveno, Carlos Daniel, Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Gustavo Maia Souza, and Ricardo Ferraz de Oliveira. 2007. Screening of tropical maize for salt stress tolerance. Crop Breeding and Applied Technology 7: 304.
Guragain, Yadhu N., Alvaro I. Herrera, Praveen V. Vadlani, and Om Prakash. 2015. Lignins of bioenergy Crops: A review. Natural Product Communications (special 10th anniversary issue) 10(1): 201–208.
Guragain, Yadhu N., K.M. Ganesh, R. Sunil Bansal, Sai Sathish, Nageshwara Rao, and Praveen V. Vadlani. 2014. Low-lignin mutant biomass resources: Effect of compositional changes on ethanol yield. Industrial Crops and Products 61: 1–8.
Hassanein, M.S., G.A. Amal, and N.M. Zaki. 2010. Growth and productivity of some sorghum cultivars under saline soil condition. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 6: 1603–1611.
House, Leland Ralph. 1985. A guide to sorghum breeding (No. SB191. S7. H68 1982.) Patancheru, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.
Incesu, Meral, Berken Cimen, Turgut Yesiloglu, and Bilge Yilmaz. 2014. Growth and photosynthetic response of two persimmon rootstocks (Diospyros kaki and D. virginiana) under different salinity levels. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 42: 386–391.
Kandil, A.A., A.E. Sharief, W.A.E. Abido, and M.M. Ibrahim. 2012. Effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling characters of some forage sorghum cultivars. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences 4: 306–311.
Khajeh-Hosseini, Mohammad, A.A. Powell, and I.J. Bingham. 2003. The interaction between salinity stress and seed vigor during germination of soybean seeds. Seed Science and Technology 31: 715–725.
Krishnamurthy, L., R. Serraj, C.T. Hash, A.J. Dakheel, and B.V.S. Reddy. 2007. Screening sorghum genotypes for salinity tolerance biomass production. Euphytica 156: 15–24.
Krishnamurthy. L., Zaman-Allah, M., Purushothaman, R., Ahmed, M.I., Vadez, V. 2011. Plant biomass productivity under abiotic stresses in SAT agriculture. In Biomass-Detection, Production and Usage, ed. Darko Matovic, 247–264. ISBN: 978-953-307-492-4.
Macharia, J.M., J. Kamau, J.N. Gituanja, and E.W. Matu. 1994. Effects of sodium salinity on seed germination and seedling root and shoot extension of four sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cultivars. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter 35: 124–125.
Meloni, Diego A., Marco A. Oliva, Carlos A. Martinez, and José Cambraia. 2003. Photosynthesis and activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathionereductase in cotton under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany 49: 69–76.
Munns, Rana, and Richard A. James. 2003. Screening methods for salinity tolerance: A case study with tetraploid wheat. Plant and Soil 253: 201–218.
Munns, Rana, and Mark Tester. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59: 651–681.
Netondo, Godfrey Wafula, John Collins Onyango, and Erwin Beck. 2004. Sorghum and salinity: I. Response of growth, water relations, and ion accumulation to NaCl salinity. Crop Science 44: 797.
Porter, K.S., J.D. Axtell, V.L. Lechtenberg, and V.F. Colenbrander. 1978. Phenotype, fiber composition, and in vitro dry matter disappearance of chemically induced brownmidrib (bmr) mutants of sorghum. Crop Science 18: 205–208.
Prakasham, Reddy Shetty, Darmarapu Nagaiah, Kanaganahalli S. Vinutha, Addepally Uma, Thulluri Chiranjeevi, Akula V. Umakanth, Pinnamaneni Srinivasa Rao, and Ning Yan. 2014. Sorghum biomass: A novel renewable carbon source for industrial bioproducts. Biofuels 5(2): 159–174.
Ramesh, S., B.V. Reddy, P.S. Reddy, M. Hebbar, and M. Ibrahim. 2005. Response of selected sorghum lines to soil salinity-stress under field conditions. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter 46: 14–18.
Rani, C.R., C. Reema, S. Alka, and P.K. Singh. 2012. Salt tolerance of Sorghum bicolor cultivars during germination and seedling growth. Research Journal of Recent Sciences 1: 1–10.
Rishi, A., and S. Sneha. 2013. Antioxidative defense against reactive oxygen species in plants under salt stress. International Journal of Current Research 5: 1622–1627.
Saadat, Saeed, and Mehdi Homaee. 2015. Modeling sorghum response to irrigation water salinity at early growth stage. Agricultural Water Management 152: 119–124.
Saravanavel, R., R. Ranganathan, and P. Anantharaman. 2011. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic characteristics of Avicennia officinalis seedlings. Recent Research in Science and Technology 3: 177–180.
Sattler, Scott E., Ana Saballos, Zhanguo Xin, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Wilfred Vermerris, and Jeffrey F. Pedersen. 2014. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population. G3: Genes Genomes. Genetics 4: 2115–2124.
Scully, E.D., Gries, T., FunnellHarris, D.L., Xin, Z., Kovacs, F.A., Vermerris, W., Sattler, S.E. 2015. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum. Journal of integrative plant biology 58(2): 136–149.
Shavrukov, Yuri. 2013. Salt stress or salt shock: Which genes are we studying? Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 119–127.
Singh, Alka, Jitendra Kumar, and Pushpendra Kumar. 2008. Effects of plant growth regulators and sucrose on post-harvest physiology, membrane stability and vase life of cut spikes of gladiolus. Plant Growth Regulation 55: 221–229.
Srinivasa Rao, P., Rao, S.S., Seetharama, N., Umakanth, A.V., Reddy, P.S., Reddy, B.V.S., Gowda, C.L.L. 2009. Sweet sorghum for biofuel and strategies for its improvement. Information Bulletin No. 77. Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 80 pp. ISBN: 978-92-9066-518-2.
Srinivasa Rao, P., Ravikumar, S., Prakasham, R.S., Deshpande, S., and Reddy, B.V.S. 2010. Bmr-from efficient fodder trait to novel substrate for futuristic biofuel: way forward. In: Brown Midrib Sorghum-Current Status and potential as novel ligno-cellulosic feedstock of beioenergy, eds. P. Srinivasa Rao, R.S. Prakasham, S. Deshpande, pp. 99–112. Saarbrücken, Germany: Lap Lambert Academic press.
Srinivasa Rao, P., Deshpande, S., Blummel, M., Reddy, B.V.S., and C.T. Hash. 2012. Characterization of brown midrib mutants of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench). European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 6: 71–75.
Vadez, Vincent, Krishnamurthy, Lakshmannaiah, Hash, C. Tom, Mallikarjuna, N, Varshney, R.K., Saxena, K.B., Rai, K.N., Reddy, B.V.S., Gaur, P.M., Nigam, S.N., Rupakula, A., Upadhyaya, H.D. 2007. Breeding for salt tolerance in cereal and legumes: Status and prospects. http://oar.icrisat.org/5834/1/Breeding_for%20salt%20tolerance_2007.pdf.
Vasilakoglou, Ioannis, Kico Dhima, Nikitas Karagiannidis, and Thomas Gatsis. 2011. Sweet sorghum productivity for biofuels under increased soil salinity and reduced irrigation. Field Crops Research 120: 38–46.
Vile, Denis, Eric Garnier, Bill Shipley, Gerard Laurent, Marie-Laure Navas, Catherine Roumet, Sandra Lavorel, et al. 2005. Specific leaf area and dry matter content estimate thickness in laminar leaves. Annals of Botany 96: 1129–1136.
Zhao, Ya Li, Abdughani Dolat, Yosef Steinberger, Xin Wang, Amarjan Osman, and Guang Hui Xie. 2009. Biomass yield and changes in chemical composition of sweet sorghum cultivars grown for biofuel. Field Crops Research 111: 55–64.
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in publishing performance of bmr 6 and 12 sorghum mutants in different wild backgrounds under salinity in Sugar Technology.
About this article
Cite this article
KS, V., H, L., GS, A. et al. Performance of bmr 6 and 12 Sorghum Mutants in Different Wild Backgrounds Under Salinity. Sugar Tech 20, 293–304 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-017-0585-8
- Brown midrib (bmr)
- Membrane stability index (MSI)
- Theoretical ethanol yield (TEY)