Sugar Tech

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 87–94 | Cite as

Health Effects of Non-Centrifugal Sugar (NCS): A Review

  • Walter R. Jaffé
Review Article


Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS), the technical name of the product obtained by evaporating the water in sugar cane juice, is known by many different names in the world, the most important being un-refined muscovado, whole cane sugar, panela (Latin America), jaggery (South Asia) and kokuto (Japan). Scientific research has been confirming that NCS has multiple health effects but it is still practically outside the current focus on functional foods and nutriceuticals. 46 academic publications have been identified which reports them. The highest frequency is immunological effects (26%), followed by anti-toxicity and cytoprotective effects (22%), anticariogenic effects (15%) and diabetes and hypertension effects (11%). Some of these effects can be traced to the presence of Fe and Cr, and others are suggested to be caused by antioxidants.


Non-centrifugal sugar Panela Jaggery Nutritional properties Antioxidative properties Health effects 


  1. Amer, S., K.-J. Na, M. Motobu, M. El-Abasy, K. Nakamura, K. Koge, and Y. Hirota. 2005. Radioprotective effect of sugar cane extract in chickens. Phytotherapy Research 19: 496–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amer, S., K.-J. Na, M. El-Abasy, M. Motobu, Y. Koyama, K. Koge, and Y. Hirota. 2004. Immunostimulating effects of sugar cane extract on X-ray radiation induced immunosuppression in the chicken. International Immunopharmacology 4: 71–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Araki, S., M. Suzuki, T. Mizutani, K. Koge, Y. Nagai, H. Murakami, T. Kawai, J. Kashimura, and T. Shimizu. 2006. Preventive/remedies for infection, anti-endotoxin agents, vaccine adjuvants and growth promoters. US Patent No. 7150885 B2.Google Scholar
  4. Arcanjo, F.P., V.P. Pinto, M.R. Arcanjo, and O.M. Amancio. 2009. Effect of a beverage fortified with evaporated sugarcane juice on hemoglobin levels in preschool children. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 26: 350–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asikin, Y., T. Chinen, K. Takara, and K. Wada. 2008. Determination of long-chain alcohol and aldehyde content in the non-centrifuged cane sugar kokuto. Food Science and Technology Research 14: 583–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beguin, M.H., and M. Schouker. 1995. Prevention of dental caries with natural unrefined food. Advances in Dental Research 9: 152–165. doi: 10.1177/0895937495009002/801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berthold, H.K., S. Unverdorben, R. Degenhardt, M. Bulitta, and I. Gouni-Berthold. 2000. Effect of policosanol on lipid levels among patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia, a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 295: 2262–2269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blomhoff, R. 2005. Dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular disease. Current Opinion in Lipidology 16: 47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brekhman, I.I., and I.F. Nesterenko. 1983. Brown Sugar and Health. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  10. Carmak, I. 2010. Biofortification of cereals with zinc and iron through fertilization strategy. In: 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  11. Chang, T.-S. 2009. An updated review of tyrosinase inhibitors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10: 2440–2475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Devasagayan, T.P.A., J.C. Tilak, K.K. Boloor, K.S. Sane, S.G. Ghaskadhi, and R.D. Lele. 2004. Free radicals and antioxidants in human health: Current status and future perspectives. JAPI 52: 794–804.Google Scholar
  13. Dimitrios, B. 2006. Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Trends in Food Science & Technology 17: 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duarte-Almeida, J.M., A.V. Novoa, A.F. Linares, F.M. Lajolo, and M.I. Genovese. 2006. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from sugarcane juice. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 61: 187–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duarte-Almeida, J.M., G. Negri, A. Salatino, J.E. Carvalho, and F.M. Lajolo. 2007. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of a tricin acylated glycoside from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) juice. Phytochemistry 68: 1165–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dybing, E., P.B. Farmer, M. Anderson, T.R. Fennell, S.P.D. Lallje, D.J.G. Müller, S. Olin, B.J. Petersen, J. Schlatter, G. Scholz, J.A. Scimeca, N. Slimani, M. Törnqvist, S. Tuijtelaars, and P. Verger. 2005. Human exposure and internal dose assessments of acrylamide in food. Food and Chemical Toxicology 43: 365–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eastmond, D.A., J.T. MacGregor, and R.S. Slesinski. 2008. Trivalent chromium: Assessing the genotoxic risk of an essential trace element and widely used human and animal nutritional supplement. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 38: 173–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edgar, W.M., and G.N. Jenkins. 1967. The effects of honey and Barbados sugar upon the rate of calcium phosphate solubility in different media. Presented at International Association for Dental Research, Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the British Division, Queens College, Dundee, April 6 and 7. Journal of Dental Research 46: 1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. EFSA. 2010. Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various food(s)/food constituents and protection of cells from premature aging, antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidative properties, and protection of DNA, proteins, and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 8 (2): 1489. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1489.
  20. Eisa, O.A., and J. Yudkin. 1985. Some nutritional properties of unrefined sugar and its promotion of the survival of new-born rats. British Journal of Nutrition 54: 593–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. El-Abasy, M., M. Motobu, K. Shimura, K.-J. Na, C.-B. Kang, K. Koge, T. Onodera, and Y. Hirota. 2002. Immunostimulating and growth-promoting effects of sugar cane extract (SCE) in chickens. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 64: 1061–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. El-Abasy, M., M. Motobu, K.-J. Na, K. Shimura, K. Nakamura, K. Koge, T. Onodera, and Y. Hirota. 2003a. Protective effects of sugar cane extracts (SCE) on Eimeria tenella infection in chickens. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 65: 865–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Abasy, M., T. Maki Motobu, K.K. Sameshima, T. Onodera, and Y. Hirota. 2003b. Adjuvant effects of sugarcane extracts in chicken. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 65: 117–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. El-Abasy, M., M. Motobu, K. Nakamura, K. Koge, T. Onodera, O. Vainio, P. Toivanen, and Y. Hirota. 2004. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar cane extract on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in chickens. International Immunopharmacology 4: 983–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. FAO/WHO 2005. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives, sixty-fourth meeting, Rome.
  26. FAO/WHO 2010. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives, seventy-second meeting, Rome.
  27. Galloway, J.H. 2000. Sugar. In: The Cambridge world history of food. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Galvez, L., Y.-I. Kwon, M.I. Genovese, F.M. Lajolo, and K. Shetty. 2008. Antidiabetes and antihypertension potential of commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners using in vitro models. Journal of Medicinal Food 11: 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guimaraes, C.M., M.S. Giao, S.S. Martinez, A.I. Pintado, M.E. Pintado, L.S. Bento, and F. Xavier Malcasa. 2007. Antioxidant activity of sugar molasses, including protective effect against DNA oxidative damage. Journal of Food Science 72: C39–C43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Halvorsen, B.L., K. Holte, M.C.W. Myrstad, I.B. Barikmo, E. Hvattum, S.F. Remberg, A.-B. Wold, K. Haffner, H. Baugerad, L.F. Andersen, J.O. Moskaug, D.R. Jacobs, and R. Blomhoff. 2002. A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. Journal of Nutrition 132: 461–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Harish Nayaka, M.A., U.V. Sathisha, M.P. Manohar, K.B. Chandrashekar, and S.M. Dharmesh. 2009. Cytoprotective and antioxidant activity studies of jaggery sugar. Food Chemistry 115: 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hikosaka, K., M. El-Abasy, Y. Koyama, M. Motobu, K. Koge, T. Isobe, C.K. Kang, H. Hayashidani, T. Onodera, P.C. Wang, M. Matsumara, and Y. Hirota. 2007. Immunostimulating effects of the polyphenol-rich fraction of sugarcane extract in chicken. Phytotherapy Research 21(120): 125.Google Scholar
  33. Hikosaka, K., Y. Koyama, M. Motobu, M. Yamada, K. Nakamura, K. Koge, K. Shimura, T. Isobe, N. Tsuji, C.K. Kang, H. Hayashidani, P.C. Wang, M. Matsamura, and Y. Hirota. 2006. Reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages and inhibited LPS-induced lethal shock in mice by a sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extract. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 70: 2853–2858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoenicke, K., and R. Gaterman. 2005. Studies in the stability of acrylamide in food during storage. Journal of AOAC International 88: 268–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Inafuku, M., T. Toda, T. Okabe, K. Wada, K. Takara, H. Iwasaki, and H. Oku. 2007. Effect of kokuto, a non-centrifugal cane sugar, on the development of experimental atherosclerosis in Japanese quail and apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Food Science and Technology Research 13: 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jaffe, W.G., and A.E. Ochoa. 1949. El papelón como fuente de hierro en la dieta popular Venezolana. Revista Venezolana de Química 21.Google Scholar
  37. Jenkins, G.N. 1970. Enamel protective factors in food. Journal of Dental Research 6(Suppl.): 1318–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kadam, U.S., S.B. Ghosh, Strayo De, P. Suprasanna, T.P.A. Devasagayam, and V.A. Bapat. 2008. Antioxidant activity in sugarcane juice and its protective role against radiation induced DNA damage. Food Chemistry 106: 1154–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kimura, Y., H. Okuda, and S. Ariki. 1984. Effects of non-sugar fraction in black sugar on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism: Part I. Plant Medicine 50: 465–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Korkina, L.G. 2007. Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: From plant defense to human health. Cellular and Molecular Biology 53: 15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kreitzman, S.N. 1974. Enzymes and dietary factors in caries. Journal of Dental Research 53: 218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lo, D.Y., T.-H. Chen, M.-S. Chien, K. Koge, A. Hosono, S. Kaminogawa, and W.-C. Lee. 2005. Effects of sugar cane extract on the modulation of immunity in pigs. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 67: 591–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lo, D.Y., M.-S. Chien, K.-S. Yeh, K. Koge, C.-C. Liu, S.-L. Hsuan, and W.-C. Lee. 2006. Effects of sugar cane extract on pseudorabies virus challenge of pigs. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 68: 219–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McLure, F.J. 1964. Cariostatic effects of phosphates. Science 144: 1337–1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Motobu, M., S. Amer, Y. Koyama, K. Hikosaka, T. Sameshima, M. Yamada, K. Nakamura, K. Koge, C.B. Kang, H. Hayasidani, and Y. Hirota. 2006. Protective effects of sugar cane extract on endotoxic shock in mice. Phytotherapy Research 20: 359–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Neveu, V., J. Perez-Jiménez, F. Vos, V. Crespy, L. du Chaffaut, L. Mennen, C. Knox, R. Eisner, J. Cruz, D. Wishart, and A. Scalbert. 2010. Phenol-explorer: An online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bap024..
  47. Okabe, T., T. Toda, M. Inafuku, K. Wada, H. Iwasaki, and H. Oku. 2009. Antiatherosclerotic functions of kokuto, Okinawan non-centrifuged cane sugar. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 57: 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Olivares, M., F. Pizarro, E. Hertrampf, G. Fuenmayor, and E. Estevez. 2007. Iron absorption from wheat flour: Effects of lemonade and chamomille infusion. Nutrition 23: 296–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Osborn, T.W.B., J.N. Noriskin, and J. Staz. 1937a. Inhibition in vitro of decalcification in teeth. Journal of Dental Research 16: 545–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Osborn, T.W.B., J.N. Noriskin, and J. Staz. 1937b. A comparison of crude and refined sugars and cereals in their ability to produce in vitro decalcification of teeth. Journal of Dental Research 16: 165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Petti, S., and C. Scully. 2009. Polyphenols, oral health and disease: A review. Journal of Dentistry 37: 413–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Popkins, B.M. 2006. The nutrition transition in the developing world. Development Policy Review 21: 581–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reynolds, T. 2002. Acrylamide and cancer: Tunnel leak in Sweden prompted studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94: 876–878. doi: 10.1093/jnci/94.12.876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ruttanarut, J., K. Yamauchi, O. Khambualai, T. Incharoen, and J. Kashimura. 2010. Effect of sugar cane extract, commercial probiotic and their mixture on growth performance and intestinal histology in broiler chickens. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences 5: 132–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Safiuddin, and K. Masud . 2001. Ground water arsenic contamination in Bangladesh: Causes, effects and remediation. Proceedings of the 1st IEB International Conference and 7th annual paper meet, 2001, November 2 – 3, Chittagong, Bangladesh: Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  56. Sahu, A.P., and A.K. Saxena. 1994. Enhanced translocation of particles from lungs by jaggery. Environmental Health Perspectives 102: 211–214.
  57. Sautter, C, and W. Gruissem. 2010. Iron biofortification of rice by targeted genetic engineering. ISBNews Report.Google Scholar
  58. Scalbert, A., I.T. Johnson, and M. Saltmarch. 2005. Polyphenols, antioxidants and beyond. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81: 215S–217S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Schroeder, H.A. 1969. Serum cholesterol and glucose levels in rats fed refined and less refined sugars and chromium. Journal of Nutrition 97: 237–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Schroeder, H.A., M. Mitchener, and A.P. Nason. 1971. Influence of various sugars, chromium and other trace metals on serum cholesterol and glucose of rats. Journal of Nutrition 101: 247–257.Google Scholar
  61. Singh, N., D. Kumar, K. Lal, S. Raisuddin, and A.P. Sahu. 2010. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: Modification by dietary supplementation of Jaggery in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 242: 247–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Singh, N., D. Kumar, S. Raisuddin, and A.P. Sahu. 2008. Genotoxic effects of arsenic: Prevention by functional food—Jaggery. Cancer Letters 268: 325–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stralfors, A. 1966. Inhibition of hamster caries by substances in brown sugar. Archives of Oral Biology 11: 617–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sumiyoshi, M., T. Hayashi, and Y. Kimura. 2009. Effects of the non-sugar fraction of brown sugar on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced photoaging in melanin-possessing hairless mice. Journal of Natural Medicines 63: 130–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Takara, K., K. Otsuka, K. Wada, H. Iwasaki, and M. Yamashita. 2007a. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of constituents of sugar cane molasses. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 71: 183–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Takara, K., K. Ushijima, K. Wada, H. Iwasaki, and M. Yamashita. 2007b. Phenolic compounds from sugarcane molasses possessing antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria. Journal of Oleo Science 56: 611–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Uma, P., R.S. Hariharan, V. Ramani, and V. Seshia. 1987. Glycaemic indices of different sugars. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries 7: 78–82.Google Scholar
  68. USDA, Agricultural Research Service (2010). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of selected foods, release 2.
  69. USDA, Agricultural Research Service 2004. Database for the proanthocyanidin content of selected foods.
  70. USDA, Agricultural Research Service 2007. Database for the flavonoid content of selected foods, release 2.1.
  71. WHO. 2001. Iron deficiency anaemia. Assessment, prevention and control. A Guide for programme managers. WHO/NHD/01.3.Google Scholar
  72. Wiesner, B.P., and J. Yudkin. 1951. Nutritional factors in reproductive failure. Nature 167: 979–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yamashita, F., T. Suzuki, and I. Kesyou. 1993. Active components in cane molasses having effect on human skin. Proceedings of the Research Society of Japan Sugar Refineries Technologists (in Japanese) 41: 43–48.Google Scholar
  74. Yamauchi, K., T. Buwjoom, K. Koge, and T. Ebashi. 2006. Histological intestinal recovery in chicken refed dietary sugar cane extract. Poultry Science 85: 645–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Yoshimoto, M., R. Kurata, M. Fujii, and D. X. Hou. 2008. In vitro and in vivo anticarcinogenesis of sugarcane-vinegar. XXVII International Horticultural Congress. Acta Hort. 765: 17–22. Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Sugar Research & Promotion 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Innovaciones Alimentarias INNOVALCaracasVenezuela

Personalised recommendations