Operational Research

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 807–819 | Cite as

Development of a model for assessing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from terminal and drayage operations

  • Giorgos E. KonstantzosEmail author
  • Georgios K. D. Saharidis
  • Maria Loizidou
Original Paper


Within a seaport terminal, the main sources of emissions include (1) building use and maintenance, (2) ocean-going vessels and harbour crafts, (3) cargo handling equipment and (4) heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) used for the transportation of the containers (which considered to be one of the most polluting elements of port operations). The main objective of this work was the development of a mathematical model for the quantification of Greenhouse Gas emissions produced by HDV during container transport in ports. Several models and tools have been developed for this purpose; however most of them utilize an over-simplified fuel and energy consumption-based approach. Firstly, a critical review of emissions calculations models was performed, and following the results of this analysis COPERT was chosen to be used as a basis for modeling the fleet in port operation. The next step was to analyse in depth COPERT’s methodology and equations in order to identify potential limitations. The following step was to evaluate and address those limitations by introducing new elements and factors (e.g. emissions from stop-and-go traffic, idling, emissions increase due to air conditioning operation etc.). The final step was the modification of COPERT’s equation and the development of the improved model.


Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions CO2 equivalent Emissions calculations Emissions model Port terminals Terminal operations Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) Drayage operations 



Auxiliary power unit




Carbon dioxide

CO2 eq.

CO2 equivalent


Computer program to calculate emissions from road transport


Exhaust gas recirculation


Fuel consumption


Greenhouse gas (es)


Gross vehicle weight


Global warming potential


Heavy-duty vehicle


International Panel on Climate Change


Light-duty vehicle


Nitrous oxide


Nitrogen oxides


Selective catalytic reduction


United States Environmental Protection Agency


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giorgos E. Konstantzos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Georgios K. D. Saharidis
    • 2
  • Maria Loizidou
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemical Engineering, Unit of Environmental Science and TechnologyNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.University of ThessalyVolosGreece

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