Advertisement

Variation in oil content and fatty acid composition in preselected argan trees with morphological characters and geographical localization

  • Naïma Ait Aabd
  • Abdelhafed El Asbahani
  • Yassine El Alem
  • Aissam El Finti
  • Fouad Msanda
  • Abdelhamid El Mousadik
Original Article

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the variability of yield and fatty acid composition of argan seed oil (Argania spinosa L.) in four provenances, and to find the relationship between fatty acid composition and environmental conditions. Twenty genotypes were preselected and evaluated for fatty acids composition during 3 years (2008–2010). The oil was extracted by a Soxhlet and the fatty acids composition was determined using gas chromatography. The results revealed a variation in seed oil content (51.83–57.50 %). Total saturated fatty acids content (C14:0; C16:0; C18:0; C20:0) ranged from 19.53 to 20.29 %, with lower content in Had Dra and Biougra than other provenances. However, the concentration of total unsaturated fatty acids ranged from 79.56 to 80.29 %, with a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1; C18:1; C20:1) (47.60 %) in Aoulouz and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (C18:2; C18:3) (35.53 %) in Biougra provenance. No correlation between oil content and fatty acid compositions with the morphological data (mother tree, fruit and seed forms) was found. The geographical localization and fatty acid content were not correlated with oil content. The study proved a significant contribution of environmental conditions to the variation in fatty acid composition. We conclude that there is a highly significant variation both in oil content and fatty acid composition in the argan provenances that can be used for its improvement.

Keywords

Argania spinosa Oil content Fatty acid Preselection 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Emberger L (1925) Le domaine naturel de l’arganier. Bulletin de la Société de Botanique de France 73:770–774Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M’Hirit O, Benzyane M, Benchekroun F, El Yousfi SM, Bendaanoun M (1998) L’Arganier. Une espèce fruitière à usages multiples. Pierre Mardaga, Sprimont, Belgique. Beaux Arts Littérature, p 150Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bani Aameur F, Ferradous A (2001) Fruits and stone variability in three argan (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) populations. For Genet 8(1):39–45Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Charrouf Z, Guillaume D (2010) Should the Amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50(5):473–477. doi: 10.1080/10408390802544520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hilali M, Charrouf Z, El Aziz Soulhi A, Hachimi L, Guillaume D (2005) Influence of origin and extraction method on argan oil physico-chemical characteristics and composition. J Agric Food Chem 53(6):2081–2087. doi: 10.1021/jf040290t CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Charrouf Z, El Hamchi H, Mallia S, Licitra G, Guillaume D (2006) Influence of roasting and seed collection on argan oil odorant composition. Nat Prod Commun 1:399–404Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Charrouf Z, Guillaume D (2008) Argan oil: occurrence, composition and impact on human health. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech 110(7):632–636. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200700220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matthäus B, Guillaume D, Gharby S, Haddad A, Harhar H, Charrouf Z (2009) Effect of processing on the quality of edible argan oil. Food Chem 120(2):426–432. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gharby S, Harhar H, Guillaume D, Haddad A, Matthäus B, Charrouf Z (2011) Oxidative stability of edible argan oil: a two-year study. LWT Food Sci Tech 44(1):1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2010.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bennani H, Drissi A, Giton F, Kheuang L, Fiet J, Adlouni A (2006) Antiproliferative effect of polyphenols and sterols of virgin argan oil on human prostate cancer cell lines. Cancer Detect Prev 31(1):64–69. doi: 10.1016/j.cdp.2006.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    El Babili F, Bouajila J, Fouraste I, Valentin A, Mauret S, Moulis C (2010) Chemical study, antimalarial and antioxidant activities, and cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells (MCF7) of Argania spinosa. Phytomedicine 17(2):157–160. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boschin G, D’Agostina A, Annicchiarico P, Arnoldi A (2008) Effect of genotype and environment on fatty acid composition of Lupinus albus L. seed. Food Chem 108(2):600–606. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.11.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghebretinsae AG, Graham SA, Camilo GR, Barber JC (2008) Natural infraspecific variation in fatty acid composition of Cuphea (Lythraceae) seed oils. Ind Crops Prod 27:279–287. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2007.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hou G, Ablett G, Pauls K, Rajcan I (2006) Environmental effects on fatty acid levels in soybean seed oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:759–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ait Aabd N, El Ayadi F, Msanda F, El Mousadik A (2011) Evaluation of agromorphological variability of argan tree under different environmental conditions in Morocco: implication for selection. Int J Biodivers Conserv 3(3):73–82 (ISSN 2141-243X)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ait Aabd N, Msanda F, El Mousadik A (2012) Univariate and multivariate analysis of agronomical traits of preselected argan trees. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 40(2):308–316 (ISSN 0255-965X)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Golkar P, Arzani A, Rezaei AM (2011) Genetic analysis of oil content and fatty acid composition in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). J Am Oil Chem Soc 88:975–982. doi: 10.1007/s11746-011-1758-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yadav S, Suneja P, Hussain Z, Abraham Z, Mishra SK (2011) Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed and oil parameters of mahua (Madhuca longifolia Koenig) J.F Macribide accessions. Biomass Bioenergy 35:1773–1778. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Virginia, pp 770–771Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huyghebaert A, Hendrick H (1974) Some aspects of chemical, physical and technological argan oil. Oilseed 10:29–31Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nerd A, Eteshola E, Boroway N, Misrahi Y (1994) Growth and oil production of argan in the desert of Israel. Ind Crops Prod 2(2):89–95. doi: 10.1016/0926-6690(94)90089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Charrouf Z, Guillaume D (1999) Ethnoeconomical; ethnomedical, and phytochemical study of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels. J Ethnopharmacol 67(1):7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Charrouf Z, Guillaume D (2002) Chemistry of the secondary metabolites of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels. Curr Topics Phytochem 5:99–102Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Charrouf Z, Guillaume D (2002) Secondary metabolites from Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels. Phytochem 1(3):345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gwali S, Nakabonge G, Lamoris Okullo JB, Eilu G, Forestier-Chiron N, Piombo G, Davrieux F (2012) Fat content and fatty acid profiles of shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa subspecies nilotica) ethno-varieties in Uganda. Forests Trees Livelihoods 21(4):267–278. doi: 10.1080/14728028.2012.755810 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Erkkila A, Mello VDF, Riserus U, Laaksonen DE (2008) Dietary fatty acid and cardiovascular disease: an epidemiological approach. Prog Lipid Res 47(3):172–187. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2008.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dubois V, Breton S, Linder M, Fanni J, Parmentier M (2007) Fatty acid profiles of 80 vegetable oils with regard to their nutritional potential. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 109(7):710–732. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200700040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dyer JM, Mullen RT (2005) Development and potential of genetically engineered oilseeds. Seed Sci Res 15(4):255–267. doi: 10.1079/SSR2005216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naïma Ait Aabd
    • 1
  • Abdelhafed El Asbahani
    • 1
  • Yassine El Alem
    • 2
  • Aissam El Finti
    • 1
  • Fouad Msanda
    • 1
  • Abdelhamid El Mousadik
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorization of Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco
  2. 2.Autonomous Establishment of Control and Coordination of ExportsAgadirMorocco

Personalised recommendations