Effects of probiotic ultra-filtered feta cheese and raw chicory root extract on lipid profile in healthy adult volunteers: a triple-blinded randomized controlled trial

  • Shayan Mohammad Moradi
  • Aida Javidan
  • Hamidreza Naji Isfahani
Original Article


The role of probiotics and prebiotics as cholesterol reductive agents has drawn a great deal of attention. However, there have been few studies, investigating the effect of prebiotics and probiotics together on lipid profile. The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic cheese (PCh) and chicory root extract consumption on lipid profile in a large sample. 180 subjects aged 18–65, with <6 mmol/l total cholesterol participated in the 7-week trial. Subjects randomly assigned into three 60-person groups. E1 consumed 30 g of PCh plus chicory root extract (daily), E2 consumed 30 g of PCh (daily) along with a control group. Probiotics strains in products were Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12. Anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were conducted at the baseline and end of trial. There was a significant reduction within both intervention groups throughout the study: intervention 1, (LDL: −0.79, 95 % CI −0.96, −0.61, P < 0.0001; cholesterol: −1.02, 95 % CI −1.41, −0.63, P < 0.0001; triglyceride: −0.59, 95 % CI −0.67, −0.51, P < 0.0001; HDL: 0.44, 95 % CI, 0.37, 0.51, P < 0.0001); intervention 2 also showed significant improvements in the mentioned factors. Comparing results of both groups with control showed significant improvements in all factors except triglyceride of intervention 2. PCh and chicory extract showed great effects on improvements of lipid profile, thus they can be used for prevention and treatment purposes.


Probiotic cheese Chicory Blood lipids Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 



Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University


Iran Dairy Industry Corporation



We would like to warmly thank all participants for their contribution to the research. We greatly thank head of research and development department of Iran Dairy Industry Corporation for all of his cooperation. Materials were supported by the Iran Dairy Industry Corporation (IDIC-Pegah). The supporters of Iran Dairy Industry Corporation played no role in the design, conduct, analysis and reporting of the study findings. The research was designed and developed by Sh.M.M. The idea of study was initiated by Sh.M.M. He also performed all the statistical analyses and wrote the manuscript and took the responsibility for the final content. The research was conducted by A.J and H.N.I. They also took the responsibility of follow ups and data collections.

Conflict of interest

All authors approved the final manuscript and declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    WHO (2011) Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). No. 317 FsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Program LRC (1984) The lipid research clinics coronary primary prevention trial results. I. Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. J Am Med Assoc 251:351–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barr DP, Russ AM, Eder HA (1951) Protein–lipid relationship in human plasma. II. In atherosclerosis and related conditions. Am J Med 11:480–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh H, Elmadfa I, Djazayery A, Jalali M, Heshmat R, Chamary M (2010) The effects of probiotic and conventional yoghurt on lipid profile in women. Br J Nutr 103(12):1778–1783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pereira DI, Gibson GR (2002) Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in human. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 37:259–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    da Cruz A, Flávia C, Buriti A, de Souza CH, Fonseca Faria JA, Isay Saad SM (2009) Probiotic cheese: health benefits, technological and stability aspects. Trends in Food Sci Technol 20:344–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ooi LG, Liong MT (2010) Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings. Int J Mol Sci 11:2499–2522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schlundt Jorgen. Evaluation of Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. FAO/WHO. Retrieved 17 Dec 2012Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cencic A, Chingwaru W (2010) The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health. Nutrients 2(6):611–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roberfroid MB (2000) Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 71:1682S–1687SGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    El-Tanboly E-S, El-Hofi M, Abd-Rabou NS, El-Desoki W (2010) Contribution of mesophilic starter and adjunct lactobacilli to proteolysis and sensory properties of semi hard cheese. New York Sci J 3(10):67–73Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ong L, Henriksson A, Shah Np (2007) Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of Cheddar cheese produced with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lb. casei, Lb. paracasei or Bifidobacterium sp. Int Dairy J 17:937–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gardiner RPRG, Collins JK, Fitzgerald G, Stanton C (1998) Development of a probiotic cheddar cheese containing human-derived Lactobacillus paracasei strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 64(6):2192–2199Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim M, Shin HK (1998) The water-soluble extract of chicory influences serum and liver lipid concentrations, cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and fecal lipid excretion in rats. J Nutr 128:1731–1736Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belal NM (2011) Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats. Asian J Clin Nutr 3(1):14–24Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yeo SK, Ooi LG, Lim T-J, Liong M-T (2009) Antihypertensive properties of plant-based prebiotics. Int J Mol Sci 10:3517–3530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    US FDA (193) Guidance for industry: guidelines for determining metric equivalents of household measures. FDA US Food and Drug administrationGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fund WCR ACS (2011) Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer preventionGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Artiss JD, Zak BA (1997) Measurement of cholesterol concentration. In: Rifai N, Warnick GR (eds) In laboratory measurement of lipids lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, 3rd edn. AACC Press, Washington, DC, pp 99–114Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cole TG, Klotzsch S, McNamara J (1997) Measurement of triglyceride concentration. In: Rifai N, Warnick GR, Dominiczak MH (eds) Handbook of lipoprotein testing. AACC Press, Washington, DC, pp 115–126Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    McArdle WD, Katch F, Katch VL (1991) Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ghafarpour M, Houshiar-rad A, Kianfar H (1999) The manual for household measures cooking yield factors and edible portion of foods. Nashre Olume Keshavarzy, TehranGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Khedkar CD, Garge R, Mantri JM, Kulkarni SA, Khedkar GD (1993) Effect of feeding acidophilus milk on serum cholesterol in human volunteers. J Dairy Foods Home Sci 12:33–38Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ratna Sudha M, Chauhan P, Dixit K, Babu S, Kaiser J (2009) Probiotics as complementary therapy for hypercholesterolemia. Biol Med 1(4):1–14Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Teitelbaum JE, Walker W (2002) Nutritional impact of pre- and probiotics as protective gastrointestinal organisms. Annu Rev Nutr 22:107–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Begley M, Hill C, Gahan CGM (2006) Bile salt hydrolase activity in probiotics. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:1729–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chiang YR, Ismail W, Heintz D, Schaeffer C, van Dorsselaer A, Fuchs G (2008) Study of anoxic and oxic cholesterol metabolism by Sterolibacterium denitrificans. J Bacteriol 190:905–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hashemi P, Torkaman F (2009) Study the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on some blood serum’s lipoproteins, liver enzymes and P448/P450 cytochrome enzyme system in NMRI female mice. J Paramed Sci (JPS) 1(1):74–78Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Scholz-Ahrens KEA, Açil Y, Schrezenmeir J (2002) Effect of oligofructose or dietary calcium on repeated calcium and phosphorus balances, bone mineralization and trabecular structure in ovariectomized rats. Br J Nutr 88:365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arjmandi BHC, Craig J, Nathani S, Reeves RD (1992) Soluble dietary fiber and cholesterol influence in vivo hepatic and intestinal cholesterol biosynthesis in rats. J Nutr 122:1559–1565Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dikeman CLM, Murphy MR, Fahey GC Jr (2006) Dietary fibers affect viscosity of solutions and simulated human gastric and small intestinal digesta. J Nutr 136:913–919Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Anderson JW, Gilliland SE (1999) Effect of fermented milk (yogurt) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus L1 on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Nutr 18:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schaafsma GM, Meuling WJ, van Dokkum V, Bouley C (1998) Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:436–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Takahashi N, Miyaji K, Oshida K, Hiramatsu A, Iwatsuki K, Kokubo S (2003) Effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on blood lipids in rats and healthy adult male volunteers. J Dairy Sci 86:2452–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Causey JL, Feirtag JM, Gallaher DD, Tungland BC, Slavin JL (2000) Effects of dietary inulin on serum lipids, blood glucose and the gastrointestinal environment in hypercholesterolemic men. Nutr Res 20:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Letexier D, Diraison F, Beylot M (2003) Addition of inulin to a moderately high-carbohydrate diet reduces hepatic lipogenesis and plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 77:559–564Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lewis SJ, Burmeister S (2005) A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr 59:776–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shayan Mohammad Moradi
    • 1
  • Aida Javidan
    • 1
  • Hamidreza Naji Isfahani
    • 1
  1. 1.Omega Research Team (ORT)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations