Advertisement

Effect of dietary coconut kernel protein on the liver and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats: comparison with l-arginine and glibenclamide

  • Gopalakrishnan Salil
  • Kottayath Govindan Nevin
  • Thankappan Rajamohan
Original Article

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arginine-rich coconut kernel protein (CKP) on alloxan-induced diabetes in comparison with l-arginine and an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. 1-month-old 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats, weighing 130–150 g, were randomly divided into five groups: group I-normal control, group II-diabetic control, group III-diabetic + CKP, group IV-diabetic + l-arginine, group V-diabetic + glibenclamide (0.6 mg/100 g body weight). The rats were induced diabetes by injecting a single dose of alloxan (150 mg/100 g body weight) intraperitoneally. After the experimental period, various parameters were analyzed. The results showed that diabetic rats treated with CKP, arginine, and glibenclamide reduced the serum glucose and had no significant effect on total serum protein content compared to diabetic control. Serum urea level was found to be comparatively reduced in arginine-, CKP-, and glibenclamide-treated rats. Toxicological analysis showed that arginine, CKP, and glibenclamide delivered to diabetic rats significantly reduced the SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities to the basal level. Histopathological analysis also showed a comparable reversible effect of CKP on alloxan-induced pancreatic damage with respect to arginine and glibenclamide-treated rats. These results clearly indicate the non-toxic and antidiabetic properties of CKP, possibly mediated through arginine.

Keywords

Diabetes Coconut protein Alloxan Peroxidation Glibenclamide l-Arginine 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to Dr. Marykutty, Professor, Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Dr. Sunil, Department of Oral Pathology, Mar Baselios Dental College, Thankalam, Kothamangalam, Eranakulam, Kerala, India for their timely help for doing the histopathology studies.

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Jia W, Gao W, Tang L (2003) Antidiabetic herbal drugs officially approved in China. Phytother Res 17:1127–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flatt PR, Bailey CJ, Green BD (2009) Recent advances in antidiabetic drug therapies targeting the enteroinsular axis. Curr Drug Met 10:125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mukherjee PK, Venkatesh M, Kumar V (2007) An overview on the development in regulation and control of medicinal and aromatic plants in the Indian system of medicine. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plant Med Aromaticas 6:126–129Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liang Y, Wu XQ, Zhang Y (2006) Research development of chemistry and bioactive activity of plant peptide. Zhongguo Zong Yao Za Zhi 9:709–714Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tepkeeva II, Aushev VN, Zborovskaya IB, Demushkin VP (2009) Cytostatic activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants on transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa cells. Bull Exp Biol Med 147:48–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xudong M, Chunfu W, Wei W, Xiaobo L (2006) Peptides from plants: a new source for antitumor drug research. Asian J Trad Med 1:85–90Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mini S, Rajamohan T (2004) Influence of coconut kernel protein on lipid metabolism in alcohol fed rats. Ind J Exp Biol 42:53–57Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Salil G, Rajamohan T (2001) Hypolipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of coconut protein in hypercholesterolemic rats. Ind J Exp Biol 10:1028–1034Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nair PKG, Rajamohan T, Kurup PA (1999) Coconut kernel protein modifies the effect of coconut oil on serum lipids. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 53:133–144Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Salil G, Nevin KG, Rajamohan T (2011) Arginine rich coconut kernel protein modulates diabetes in alloxan treated rats. Chem Biol Inter 189:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lott JA, Turner K (1975) Evaluation of Trinder’s glucose oxidase method for measuring glucose in serum and urine. Clin Chem 21:1754–1760Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mendez JD, De Haro-Hernandez R (2005) l-arginine and polyamine administration protect beta-cells against alloxan diabetogenic effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biomed Pharmacother 59:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Henquin JC (1992) The fiftieth anniversary of hypoglycaemic sulphonamides. How did the mother compound work Diabetologia 35:907–912Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Renstrom E, Barg S, Thevenod F, Rorsman P (2002) Sulfonylurea-mediated stimulation of insulin exocytosis via an ATP-sensitive K + channel-independent action. Diabetes 51:33–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fajans SS, Floyd JC, Knopf RF, Conn FW (1967) Effect of amino acids and proteins on insulin secretion in man. Recent Prog Horm Res 23:612–617Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McClenaghan NH, Barnett CR, O’Harte FPM, Flatt PR (1996) Mechanisms of amino acid-induced insulin secretion from the glucose-responsive BRIN-BD11 pancreatic B-cell line. J Endocrinol 15:347–349Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brennan L, Shine A, Hewage C, Malthouse JP, Brindle KM, McClenaghan NH, Flatt PR, Newsholme P (2002) A nuclear magnetic resonance-based demonstration of substantial oxidative l-alanine metabolism and l-alanine-enhanced glucose metabolism in a clonal pancreatic beta-cell line: metabolism of l-alanine is important to the regulation of insulin secretion. Diabetes 51:1714–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hibbs JB, Taintor RR, Vavrin Z, Rachlin EM (1988) Nitric oxide: a cytotoxic activated macrophage effector molecule. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 157:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Palmer RMJ, Ashton DS, Moncada S (1988) Vascular endothelial cells synthesize nitric oxide from l-arginine. Nature 333:664–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mendez JD, Arreola MA (1992) Effect of l-arginine on pancreatic arginase activity and polyamines in alloxan treated rats. Biochem Int 28:569–575Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mendez JD, Balderas F (2001) Regulation of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by exogenous l-arginine in diabetic rats. Biochimie 83:453–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Drabkin DL, Marsh JB (1947) Increased liver phosphates activity in alloxan diabetic rats. J Biol Chem 195:455–462Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Huang CC, Lin TJ, Lu YF, Chen CC, Huang CY, Lin WT (2009) Protective effects of l-arginine supplementation against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in young rat tissues. Chin J Physiol 31:306–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gokce G, Haznedaroglu MZ (2008) Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective effects of Posidonia oceanica extract. J Ethnopharmacol 15:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Prince PSM, Menon VP (2000) Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cardifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 70:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Drotman RB, Lawhorn GT (1978) Serum enzymes are indicators of chemical induced liver damage. Drug Chem Toxicol 1:163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sumana G, Suryawanshi SA (2001) Effect of Vinca Rosea extracts in treatment of alloxan diabetes in male albino rats. Ind J Exp Biol 39:748–749Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vasilijevic A, Buzadzic B, Korac A, Petrovic V, Jankovic A, Korac B (2007) Beneficial effects of l-arginine nitric oxide-producing pathway in rats treated with alloxan. J Physiol 584:921–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salil G, Nevin KG, Rajamohan T (2012) Arginine-rich coconut kernel diet influences nitric oxide synthase activity in alloxan diabetic rats. J Sci Food Agric (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gopalakrishnan Salil
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kottayath Govindan Nevin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thankappan Rajamohan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of KeralaThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.Division of Biosciences, Department of BiochemistrySree Narayana Guru Institute of Science and TechnologyEranakulamIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryMar Baselios Dental CollegeEranakulamIndia

Personalised recommendations