Advertisement

High blood pressure in urban Moroccan women from an agricultural region

  • Mohamed Mziwira
  • Mohammed El Ayachi
  • Denis Lairon
  • Rekia Belahsen
Original Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the associated risk factors of hypertension and the relationship between blood pressure and obesity determined by different anthropometric measurements in a population of urban adult women of Morocco. The study was conducted in an agricultural community, El Jadida province of Morocco. Body weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences, blood pressure, fasting capillary blood glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured in a sample of 213 women volunteers (18–55 years old). Body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were determined. High blood pressure was detected in 35.8% of women. All hypertensive women were at high risk of hyperglycemia (22.4% were hyperglycemic, among which 17.6% were diabetic), hypertriglyceridemia (10.7%), hypercholesterolemia (14.5%) and metabolic syndrome (18.4%). Only 6.6% of the women practice physical activity and 23.6% had no education level. Bivariate correlation showed a positive association between age and obesity. In the same way blood pressure was also positively associated with obesity, age, WC, WHR, fasting plasma glucose and triacylglycerols. The results show a high prevalence of obesity associated with increased prevalence of hypertension (HT). The study data reinforce the need to increase detection and treatment of hypertension and to approach patients’ global risk profiles. It is also suggested that the simultaneous interpretation of anthropometric measurements could be used as screening tool for the identification of HT.

Keywords

High blood pressure Metabolic disorder Obesity Moroccan women 

Notes

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Castelli WP (1984) Epidemiology of coronary heart disease: the Framinghan study. Am J Med 76:4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S et al (2001) Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization. Circulation 104:2746–2753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reddy KS (1993) Cardiovascular diseases in India. World Health Stat Q 46:101–107Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Addo J, Smeeth L, Leon DA (2009) Socioeconomic position and hypertension: a study of urban civil servants in Ghana. J Epidemiol Community Health 63(8):646–650Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hajjar I, Kotchen JM, Kotchen TA (2006) Hypertension: trends in prevalence, incidence and control. Annu Rev Public Health 27:465–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barreto SM, Passos VM, Firmo JO, Guerra HL, Vidigal PG, Lima-Costa MF (2001) Hypertension and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a community in Southeast Brazil: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study. Arq Bras Cardiol 77:576–581Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robitaille NM (1996) Hypertension in women. Can J Cardiol 12(Suppl D):6D–8D ReviewGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rguibi M, Belahsen R (2007) Prevalence of obesity in Morocco. Obes Rev 8:11–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation, 3–5 June 1997, Geneva. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 894:1–253Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olinto MTA, Nacul LC, Gigante DP et al (2003) Waist circumference as a determinant of hypertension and diabetes in Brazilian women: a population-based study. Public Health Nutrition 7(5):629–635Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC (1974) Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 20:470–475Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fossati P, Prencipe L (1982) Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem 28:2077–2080Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sugiuchi H, Uji Y, Okabe H et al (1995) Direct measurement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum with polyethylene glycol-modified enzymes and sulfated alpha-cyclodextrin. Clin Chem 41:717–723Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harris N, Galpchian V, Rifai N (1996) Three routine methods for measuring high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with the reference method. Clin Chem 42:738–743Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499–502Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ANAES (Agence Nationale d’Accréditation et d’Evaluation en Santé) (2000) Modalités de dépistage et diagnostic biologique des dyslipidémies en prévention primaireGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    National Cholesterol Education Program (2001) Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285:2486–2497Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tazi MA, Abir-Khalil S, Chaouki N et al (2003) Prevalence of the main cardiovascular risk factors in Morocco: results of a National Survey, 2000. J Hypertens 21:897–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    National Institutes of Health (1997) The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. National High Blood Pressure Program. NIH publication 98-4080. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung and Blood InstituteGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ben Khedda S, Temmar M, Bendaoud N et al (2005) Prevalence of hypertension in Algeria:results from a National Survey, Cardiology Division, Mustapha Hospital Medical School, AlgiersGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ibrahim MM (1999) Epidemiology of hypertension in Egypt. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 10:352–356Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vega Alonso AT et al (2008) Prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial en la población de Castilla y León. Gac Sanit 22(4):330–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rguibi M, Belahsen R (2007) High blood pressure in urban Moroccan Sahraoui women. J Hypertens 25(7):1363–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mesure des facteurs de risqué des maladies non transmissibles dans deux wilayas pilotes en Algérie (2005) rapport finalGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Al-Lawati JA, Mohammed AJ, Al-Hinai HQ, Jousilahti P (2003) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care 26(6):1781–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Malhotra P, Kumari S, Kumar R et al (1999) Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in an un-industrialised rural population of North India. J Hum Hypertens 13:467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thamm M (1999) Blood pressure in Germany: current status and trends. Gesundheitswesen 61, Spec. No. S90–S93Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    WHO (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, i–xii. 1–253Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O’Meara JG, Kardia SL, Armon JJ et al (2004) Ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia among hypertensive adults in the GENOA study. Arch Intern Med 164:1313–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Onat A, Hergenc G, Sari I et al (2005) Dyslipidemic hypertension: distinctive features and cardiovascular risk in a prospective population-based study. Am J Hypertens 18:409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    WHO/World Bank Food policy options: preventing and controlling nutrition related non-communicable diseases, health, nutrition and population discussion paper (Geneva: WHO/World Bank, 2002)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Droyvold WB, Midthjell K et al (2005) Change in body mass index and its impact on blood pressure: a prospective population study. Int J Obes (Lond) 29:650–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wilsgaard T, Schirmer H, Arnesen E (2000) Impact of body weight on blood pressure with a focus on sex differences: the Tromso Study, 1986–1995. Arch Intern Med 160:2847–2853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grievink L, Alberts JF, O’Niel J, Gerstenbluth I (2004) Waist circumference as a measurement of obesity in the Netherlands Antilles; associations with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:1159–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Mziwira
    • 1
  • Mohammed El Ayachi
    • 1
  • Denis Lairon
    • 2
  • Rekia Belahsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Training and Research Unit on Nutrition and Food Sciences, Laboratory of Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of SciencesChouaib Doukkali UniversityEl JadidaMorocco
  2. 2.Faculté de Médecine, INSERM, UMR476, Nutriments Lipidiques et Prévention des Maladies Métaboliques, INRA 1260Univ Aix-Marseille 1 & 2MarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations