Alicic RZ, Rooney MT, Tuttle KR. Diabetic kidney disease: challenges, progress, and possibilities. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;12(12):2032–45.
Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Diabetes Work Group. KDIGO 2020 clinical practice guideline for diabetes management in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2020;98(4S):S1–115.
Cunningham J, Sprague SM, Cannata-Andia J, et al. Osteoporosis in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43(3):566–71.
Hammes H-P, Welp R, Kempe H-P, Wagner C, Siegel E, Holl RW. Risk factors for retinopathy and DME in type 2 diabetes—results from the German/Austrian DPV database. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132492.
Molitich ME, Defronzo RA, Franz MJ, et al. Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(Suppl 1):S79–83.
Ritz E, Orth SR. Nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(15):1127–33.
Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Ahroni JH. Limb- and person-level risk factors for lower-limb amputation in the prospective Seattle Diabetic Foot study. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(4):891–8.
Masson P, Webster AC, Hong M, Turner R, Lindley RI, Craig JC. Chronic kidney disease and the risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015;30(7):1162–9.
El-Achkar TM, Ohmit SE, Mccullough PA, et al. Higher prevalence of anemia with diabetes mellitus in moderate kidney insufficiency: the Kidney Early Evaluation Program. Kidney Int. 2005;67(4):1483–8.
Reutens AT. Epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease. Med Clin North Am. 2013;97(1):1–18.
Afkarian M, Sachs M, Kestenbaum B, et al. Kidney disease and increased mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(2):302–8.
Nag S, Bilous R, Kelly W, Jones S, Roper N, Connolly V. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality in diabetic subjects increases significantly with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 10 years’ data from the South Tees Diabetes Mortality study. Diabet Med. 2007;24(1):10–7.
US Renal Data System (USRDS). US Renal Data System 2019 annual data report: epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. 2019. https://www.usrds.org/adr.aspx. Accessed 25 Feb 2021.
McQueen RB, Farahbakhshian S, Bell KF, Nair KV, Saseen JJ. Economic burden of comorbid chronic kidney disease and diabetes. J Med Econ. 2017;20(6):585–91.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Kidney disease statistics for the United States. 2016. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/kidney-disease. Accessed 25 Feb 2021.
Szczech LA, Stewart RC, Su H-L, et al. Primary care detection of chronic kidney disease in adults with type-2 diabetes: the ADD-CKD study (Awareness, Detection and Drug therapy in type 2 diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease). PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e110535.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(Suppl 1):S1–212.
Remuzzi G, Perico N, Macia M, Ruggenenti P. The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2005;99:S57–65.
Siragy HM, Carey RM. Role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2010;31(6):541–50.
Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Chronic Kidney Disease Working Group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3(1):1–150.
Kasiske BL, Kalil RS, Ma JZ, Liao M, Keane WF. Effect of antihypertensive therapy on the kidney in patients with diabetes: a meta-regression analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(2):129–38.
Parving H-H, Hommel E, Jensen BR, Hansen HP. Long-term beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on diabetic nephropathy in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients. Kidney Int. 2001;60(1):228–34.
Jovanovic L, Klioze SS, Reis J, Duggan W. Inhaled human insulin (Exubera®) therapy shows sustained efficacy and is well tolerated over a 2-year period in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Diabetes. 2006;55(Suppl 1):A26.
Gonzalez CD, Di GG. Safety and side effects of the insulin analogues. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006;5(2):195–6.
Tancredi M, Rosengren A, Olsson M, et al. The relationship between three eGFR formulas and hospitalization for heart failure in 54486 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016;32(7):730–5.
Norris KC, Smoyer KE, Rolland C, Van der Vaart J, Grubb EB. Albuminuria, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate as predictors of cardio-renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and kidney disease: a systematic literature review. BMC Nephrol. 2018;19(1):36.
Lambers Heerspink HJ, Tighiouart H, Sang Y, et al. GFR decline and subsequent risk of established kidney outcomes: a meta-analysis of 37 randomized controlled trials. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;64(6):860–6.
Jones C, Roderick P, Harris S, Rogerson M. Decline in kidney function before and after nephrology referral and the effect on survival in moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21(8):2133–43.
Deem M, Rice J, Valentine K, Zavertnik JE, Lakra M. Screening for diabetic kidney disease in primary care: a quality improvement initiative. Nurse Pract. 2020;45(4):34–41.
Krause TM, Ganduglia-Cazaban C, Finkel KW. Rates for HEDIS screening for diabetic nephropathy quality measure may be overstated. Manag Care. 2018;27(8):45–9.
Tuttle KR, Bakris GL, Bilous RW, et al. Diabetic kidney disease: a report from an ADA Consensus Conference. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(10):2864–83.
Jain K, Mottl AK. Comprehensive care for people with diabetic kidney disease. Diabetes Spectr. 2015;28(3):187–92.
Umanath K, Lewis JB. Update on diabetic nephropathy: core curriculum 2018. Am J Kidney Dis. 2018;71(6):884–95.
Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, et al. Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(24):2295–306.
Arday DR, Fleming BB, Keller DK, et al. Variation in diabetes care among states: do patient characteristics matter? Diabetes Care. 2002;25(12):2230–7.
Navaneethan SD, Akeroyd JM, Ramsey D, et al. Facility-level variations in kidney disease care among veterans with diabetes and CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;13(12):1842–50.
Aucella F, Corsonello A, Leosco D, Brunori G, Gesualdo L, Antonelli-Incalzi R. Beyond chronic kidney disease: the diagnosis of renal disease in the elderly as an unmet need. A position paper endorsed by Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) and Italian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SIGG). J Nephrol. 2019;32(2):165–76.