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Effects of Different Applications of Tranexamic Acid on Perioperative Blood Transfusion Rate and Postoperative Pain in Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty



The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different applications of tranexamic acid (TXA) on perioperative blood transfusion rate and postoperative pain in unilateral total knee arthroplasty.


This prospective study included a total of 102 patients undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty in our hospital from November 2017 to October 2019. On the basis of different TXA administration methods, these patients were randomly assigned to a surface treatment group (50 cases were treated with intraoperative spraying and drug-soaked gauze to cover the wound combined with local injection into the articular cavity) and control group (52 cases were given TXA by intravenous drip combined with local injection into the articular cavity) by random number table method. Clinical data were recorded and evaluated in the two groups. A total of five surgeons participated in the study.


In the surface treatment group, the operation time, hospital stay, tourniquet time, and blood transfusion rate were significant lower compared with the control group, and there was no significant difference in the incision length between the two groups. Our results showed that intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage, postoperative blood loss, total blood loss, and the incidence of deep venous thrombosis in the surface treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Our results demonstrated that the surface treatment group reported significantly lower degree of pain compared with the control group at 1 day and 3 days after the operation. However, 7 days after the operation, the degree of pain in the surface treatment group did not differ significantly from that in the control group. In addition, the results of blood coagulation indexes showed that the values of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), and hemoglobin (HGB) in the surface treatment group did not differ significantly from those in the control group before the operation (P > 0.05).


In terms of applications of TXA, the method of intraoperative spraying and drug-soaked gauze covering the wound combined with local injection into the articular cavity can reduce the amount of bleeding and the rate of blood transfusion, and alleviate the degree of pain with high safety profile.

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We thank the participants of the study.


No funding or sponsorship was received for this study or publication of this article. The Rapid Service Fee was funded by the authors.


All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Authorship Contributions

Xiaodong Zhang and Liang Wen contributed to the conception and design of the study; Deli Ma and Jiang Pan performed the experiments, collected and analyzed data; Xiaodong Zhang and Liang Wen wrote the manuscript; All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.


Xiaodong Zhang, Deli Ma, Jiang Pan and Liang Wen have nothing to disclose.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Informed consent was obtained from all patents before enrollment. This study protocol was approved by Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital. The work was performed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and its later amendments.

Data Availability

The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Correspondence to Liang Wen.

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Zhang, X., Ma, D., Pan, J. et al. Effects of Different Applications of Tranexamic Acid on Perioperative Blood Transfusion Rate and Postoperative Pain in Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty. Adv Ther 38, 1143–1154 (2021).

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  • Blood transfusion rate
  • Perioperative period
  • Total knee arthroplasty
  • Tranexamic acid
  • Unilateral