Verrills P, Sinclair C, Barnard A. A review of spinal cord stimulation systems for chronic pain. J Pain Res. 2016;9:481–92. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S108884.
Jeon YH. Spinal cord stimulation in pain management: a review. Korean J Pain. 2012;25(3):143–50. https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2012.25.3.143.
Chandwani HS. The economic burden of chronic back pain in the United States: a societal perspective. 2013. https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/23087?show=full. Accessed August 28, 2019.
Curet ME, Mason RJ. The cost of obesity for nonbariatric inpatient operative procedures in the United States: national cost estimates obese versus nonobese patients. Ann Surg. 2013;258(4):552–3. https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a500ce.
Mekhail N, Azer G, Saweris Y, Mehanny DS, Costandi S, Mao G. The impact of tobacco cigarette smoking on spinal cord stimulation effectiveness in chronic spine-related pain patients. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018;43(7):768–75. https://doi.org/10.1097/AAP.0000000000000870.
Mekhail N, Mehanny D, Armanyous S, Saweris Y, Costandi S. The impact of obesity on the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in chronic spine-related pain patients. Spine J. 2019;19(3):476–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2018.08.006.
Chooi YC, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism. 2019;92:6–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2018.09.005.
Okifuji A, Hare BD. The association between chronic pain and obesity. J Pain Res. 2015;8:399–408. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S55598.
Bir SC, Konar S, Maiti T, Nanda A, Guthikonda B. Neuromodulation in intractable pain management: outcomes and predictors of revisions of spinal cord stimulators. Neurosurg Focus. 2016;40(5):E4. https://doi.org/10.3171/2016.3.FOCUS15634.
Follett KA, Boortz-Marx RL, Drake JM, et al. Prevention and management of intrathecal drug delivery and spinal cord stimulation system infections. Vol 100, 2004. www.anesthesiology.org. Accessed August 28, 2019.
Deer TR, Stewart CD. Complications of spinal cord stimulation: identification, treatment, and prevention. Pain Med. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00444.x.
Sastry S, Nussear D, Gillespy A, Berger K. Technical challenges of spinal cord stimulation lead placement in morbidly obese patients. Open Anesthesiol J. 2016;10(1):8–11. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874321801610010008.
HCUP. NIS Trend Weights. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/db/nation/nis/trendwghts.jsp. Accessed August 29, 2019.
Smuck M, Kao M-CJ, Brar N, Martinez-Ith A, Choi J, Tomkins-Lane CC. Does physical activity influence the relationship between low back pain and obesity? Spine J. 2014;14(2):209–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2013.11.010.
Hanley MJ, Abernethy DR, Greenblatt DJ. Effect of obesity on the pharmacokinetics of drugs in humans. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010;49(2):71–877. https://doi.org/10.2165/11318100-000000000-00000.
HHS. Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Common Rule | HHS.gov). https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/regulations/common-rule/index.html. Accessed August 29, 2019.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806–14. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.732.
Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016 Key Findings Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288_table.pdf#1. Accessed August 28, 2019.
Khosravizadeh O, Vatankhah S, Bastani P, Kalhor R, Alirezaei S, Doosty F. Factors affecting length of stay in teaching hospitals of a middle-income country. Electron Phys. 2016;8(10):3042–7. https://doi.org/10.19082/3042.
Marola O, Cherala R, Prusik J, et al. BMI as a predictor of spinal cord stimulation success in chronic pain patients. Neuromodulation. 2017;20(3):269–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/ner.12482.
Hauck K, Hollingsworth B. The impact of severe obesity on hospital length of stay. Med Care. 2010;48(4):335–40. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e3181ca3d85.
Madineni RA, Smith CM, Clark SW, et al. Effect of preoperative opioid dosage on postoperative period after thoracic spinal cord stimulator surgery. Pain Med. 2018;19(4):693–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnx250.
de Hoogd S, Välitalo PAJ, Dahan A, et al. Influence of morbid obesity on the pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017;56(12):1577–87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-017-0544-2.
Patanwala AE, Holmes KL, Erstad BL. Analgesic response to morphine in obese and morbidly obese patients in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2014;31:139–42. https://doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2012-202168.
Wakefield H, Vaughan-Sarrazin M, Cullen JJ. Influence of obesity on complications and costs after intestinal surgery. Am J Surg. 2012;204(4):434–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.01.013.
Zizza C, Herring AH, Stevens J, Popkin BM. Length of hospital stays among obese individuals. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(9):1587–91. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.94.9.1587.
Nguyen AT, Tsai C-L, Hwang L-Y, Lai D, Markham C, Patel B. Obesity and mortality, length of stay and hospital cost among patients with sepsis: a nationwide inpatient retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154599. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154599.
US Census Bureau. Annual estimates of the resident population for selected age groups by sex for the United States, States, Counties, and Puerto Rico Commonwealth and Municipios: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014. Am FactFinder. 2015. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk. Accessed August 28, 2019.
Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016 Key Findings Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 2015. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288_table.pdf#1. Accessed August 28, 2019.
Bartley EJ, Fillingim RB. Sex differences in pain: a brief review of clinical and experimental findings. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111(1):52–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aet127.
Musey PI, Linnstaedt SD, Platts-Mills TF, et al. Gender differences in acute and chronic pain in the emergency department: results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference pain section. Acad Emerg Med. 2014;21(12):1421–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.12529.
Johannes CB, Le TK, Zhou X, Johnston JA, Dworkin RH. The prevalence of chronic pain in United States adults: results of an internet-based survey. J Pain. 2010;11(11):1230–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2010.07.002.
Thomas E, Peat G, Harris L, Wilkie R, Croft PR. The prevalence of pain and pain interference in a general population of older adults: cross-sectional findings from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP). Pain. 2004;110(1–2):361–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2004.04.017.
KFF. Population distribution by race/ethnicity. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2017. https://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/distribution-by-raceethnicity/?currentTimeframe=0&selectedRows=%7B%22states%22:%7B%22pennsylvania%22:%7B%7D%7D%7D&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D. Accessed Aug 28, 2019.
Reyes-Gibby CC, Anderson KO, Shete S, Bruera E, Yennurajalingam S. Early referral to supportive care specialists for symptom burden in lung cancer patients: a comparison of non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic blacks. Cancer. 2012;118(3):856–63. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26312.
Mosher CE, Duhamel KN, Egert J, Smith MY. Self-efficacy for coping with cancer in a multiethnic sample of breast cancer patients: associations with barriers to pain management and distress. Clin J Pain. 2010;26(3):227–34. https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181bed0e3.
Bernabei R, Gambassi G, Lapane K, et al. Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. J Am Med Assoc. 1998;279(23):1877–82. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.23.1877.
Harris D, Andrews R, Elixhauser A. Racial and gender differences in use of procedures for black and white hospitalized adults. Ethn Dis. 1997;7(2):91–105.
Kamble PS, Hayden J, Collins J, et al. Association of obesity with healthcare resource utilization and costs in a commercial population. Curr Med Res Opin. 2018;34(7):1335–433. https://doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2018.1464435.
Bossola M, Giungi S, Luciani G, Tazza L. Body mass index, comorbid conditions and quality of life in hemodialysis patients. J Nephrol. 2018;22(4):508–14.
Valle-Giler EP, Sulaiman WAR. Midline minimally invasive placement of spinal cord stimulators: a technical note. Ochsner J. 2014;14(1):51–6.
Eldabe S, Buchser E, Duarte RV. Complications of spinal cord stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation techniques: a review of the literature. Pain Med. 2016;17(2):325–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnv025.
Kim DD, Vakharyia R, Kroll HR, Shuster A. Rates of lead migration and stimulation loss in spinal cord stimulation: a retrospective comparison of laminotomy versus percutaneous implantation. Pain Phys. 2011;14(6):513–24.