Skip to main content

The Relationship Between Homocysteine, Blood Pressure Variability, and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients with Essential Hypertension: An Observational Study

Abstract

Introduction

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between homocysteine (Hcy) and blood pressure variability (BPV) and the relationship between Hcy and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in 102 patients with essential hypertension.

Methods

The 102 patients were divided into the Hcy < 10 μmol/L group (n = 47) and the Hcy ≥ 10 μmol/L group (n = 55) according to Hcy concentration. The differences between Hcy and BPV and Hcy and LVH were compared between the two groups. Finally, the correlations between Hcy and BPV and between Hcy and LVH were analyzed.

Results

The results showed that there were significant differences between Hcy and BPV and between Hcy and LVH in the two groups. Hcy correlated positively with the coefficient of variation in nighttime diastolic blood pressure and night systolic blood pressure standard deviation (nDBPSD), with correlation coefficients of 0.331 and 0.303 (P < 0.001). At the same time, Hcy correlated positively with interventricular septal thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness, which were indicators of LVH, with correlation coefficients of 0.350 and 0.352 (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

There was a correlation between Hcy and BPV and between Hcy and LVH. Attention should also be paid to blood Hcy and BPV for patients with essential hypertension.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Kuang ZM, Wang Y, Feng SJ, Jiang L, Cheng WL. Association between plasma homocysteine and microalbuminuria in untreated patients with essential hypertension: a case-control study. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2017;42(6):1303–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Skeete J, Dipette DJ. Relationship between homocysteine and hypertension: new data add to the debate. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2017;19(11):1171–2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Fang X, Wang Z, Wang C, et al. Cardiovascular and cognitive health study in middle-aged and elderly residents of Beijing(CCHS-Beijing): design and rationale. Neuroepidemiology. 2016;46(3):182–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Li T, Zhu J, Fang Q, et al. Association of H-type hypertension with stroke severity and prognosis. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:8725908.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Liu J, Quan J, Li Y, Wu Y, Yang L. Blood homocysteine levels could predict major adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a STROBE-compliant observational study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(40):e12626.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Xu B, Kong X, Xu R, et al. Homocysteine and all-cause mortality in hypertensive adults without pre-existing cardiovascular conditions: effect modification by MTHFR C677T polymorphism. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(8):e5862.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Yun L, Xu R, Li G. Homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR are risk factors of early renal damage in hypertension in a Chinese han population. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(52):e2389.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Sera F, Jin Z, Russo C, et al. Relationship of office and ambulatory blood pressure with left ventricular global longitudinal strain. Am J Hypertens. 2016;29(11):1261–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Bendall JK, Douglas G, Mcneill E, Channon KM, Crabtree MJ. Tetrahydrobiopterin in cardiovascular health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;20(18):3040–77.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Han L, Wu Q, Wang C, et al. Homocysteine, ischemic stroke, and coronary heart disease in hypertensive patients: a population-based. Prospect Cohort Study. Stroke. 2015;46(7):1777–86.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Howard VJ, Sides EG, Newman GC, et al. Changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine in the acute phase after stroke. Stroke. 2002;33(2):473–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Zhou F, Zhou L, Guo T. Plasma proteomics reveals coagulation, inflammation, and metabolic shifts in H-type hypertension patients with and without acute ischemic stroke. Oncotarget. 2017;8(59):100384–95.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Zhong F, Zhuang L, Wang Y, Ma Y. Homocysteine levels and risk of essential hypertension: a meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2017;39(2):160–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Miao CY, Yuan WJ, Su DF. Comparative study of sinoaortic denervated rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16(7):585–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Bakris GL, Sarafidis PA, Weir MR, et al. Renal outcomes with different fixed-dose combination therapies in patients with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular events (ACCOMPLISH): a prespecified secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375(9721):1173–81.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Turner JR, Viera AJ, Shimbo D. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical practice: a review. Am J Med. 2015;128(1):14–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Rimpela JM, Porsti IH, Jula A, et al. Genome-wide association study of nocturnal blood pressure dipping in hypertensive patients. BMC Med Genet. 2018;19(1):110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Wang C, Deng WJ, Gong WY. High prevalence of isolated nocturnal hypertension in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4(6):e002025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Wald NJ, Watt HC, Law MR, Weir DG, McPartlin J, Scott JM. Homocysteine and ischemic heart disease: results of a prospective study with implications regarding prevention. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(8):862–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Xiao W, Bai Y, Ye P, et al. Plasma homocysteine is associated with aortic arterial stiffness but not wave reflection in Chinese hypertensive subjects. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85938.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Brozovich FV, Nicholson CJ, Degen CV, Gao YZ, Aggarwal M, Morgan KG. Mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle contraction and the basis for pharmacologic treatment of smooth muscle disorders. Pharmacol Rev. 2016;68(2):476–532.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Wang C, Zhang J, Liu X, et al. Reversed dipper blood-pressure pattern is closely related to severe renal and cardiovascular damage in patients with chronic kidney disease. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55419.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Jing L, Nevius CD, Friday CM, et al. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure and obesity are independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophic remodeling in children. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2017;19(1):86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Miller A, Mujumdar V, Palmer L, Bower JD, Tyagi SC. Reversal of endocardial endothelial dysfunction by folic acid in homocysteinemic hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15(2 Pt 1):157–63.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Mao X, Xing X, Xu R, et al. Folic Acid and vitamins D and B12 correlate with homocysteine in Chinese patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(6):e2652.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Wang WW, Wang XS, Zhang ZR, He JC, Xie CL. A meta-analysis of folic acid in combination with anti-hypertension drugs in patients with hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:585.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank all participants of the study.

Funding

The study was supported by Yulin Science and Technology Research Project (No: 161034), Guangxi Science and Technology Plan Project (No: 1598011-2) and PRIME China Post-Single Group Study (XP China SAS, No: 12-396). The Rapid Service Fee was funded by the authors.

Authorship

All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.

Authorship Contributions

Bei-You Lin and Ping Li contributed equally to this work.

Disclosures

Bei-You Lin, Ping Li, Xiao-Dan Wu, Hao Li, and Zhi-Yu Zeng have nothing to disclose.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

The scheme adopted in this study was based on the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Yulin First Hospital. All participants provided written consent to participate in the study.

Data Availability

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhi-Yu Zeng.

Additional information

Enhanced Digital Features

To view enhanced digital features for this article go to https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.10272503.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lin, BY., Li, P., Wu, XD. et al. The Relationship Between Homocysteine, Blood Pressure Variability, and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients with Essential Hypertension: An Observational Study. Adv Ther 37, 381–389 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-019-01154-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Blood pressure variability
  • Essential hypertension
  • Homocysteine
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Relationship