Byrne CD, Targher G. NAFLD: a multisystem disease. J Hepatol. 2015;62:S47–64.
Ballestri S, Zona S, Targher G, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an almost twofold increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;31:936–44.
Lonardo A, Ballestri S, Marchesini G, Angulo P, Loria P. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a precursor of the metabolic syndrome. Dig Liver Dis. 2015;47:181–90.
Targher G, Byrne CD, Lonardo A, Zoppini G, Barbui C. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2016;65:589–600.
Targher G, Bertolini L, Rodella S, et al. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is independently associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease and proliferative/laser-treated retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2008;51:444–50.
Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF). AISF position paper on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (NAFLD): updates and future directions. Dig Liver Dis. 2017;49:471–83.
Ballestri S, Nascimbeni F, Romagnoli D, Lonardo A. The independent predictors of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and its individual histological features. Insulin resistance, serum uric acid, metabolic syndrome, alanine aminotransferase and serum total cholesterol are a clue to pathogenesis and candidate targets for treatment. Hepatol Res. 2016;46:1074–87.
Mantovani A, Targher G. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: spotlight on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Ann Transl Med. 2017;5:270.
Ekstedt M, Franzen LE, Mathiesen UL, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes. Hepatology. 2006;44:865–73.
Ballestri S, Nascimbeni F, Romagnoli D, Baldelli E, Lonardo A. The role of nuclear receptors in the pathophysiology, natural course, and drug treatment of NAFLD in humans. Adv Ther. 2016;33:291–319.
Lonardo A, Nascimbeni F, Maurantonio M, Marrazzo A, Rinaldi L, Adinolfi LE. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: evolving paradigms. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23:6571–92.
Brandi G, De Lorenzo S, Candela M, et al. Microbiota, NASH, HCC and the potential role of probiotics. Carcinogenesis. 2017;38:231–40.
Zoller H, Tilg H. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolism. 2016;65:1151–60.
Xun YH, Fan JG, Zang GQ, et al. Suboptimal performance of simple noninvasive tests for advanced fibrosis in Chinese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Dig Dis. 2012;13:588–95.
Shen F, Zheng RD, Shi JP, et al. Impact of skin capsular distance on the performance of controlled attenuation parameter in patients with chronic liver disease. Liver Int. 2015;35:2392–400.
Armstrong MJ, Gaunt P, Aithal GP, et al. Liraglutide safety and efficacy in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (LEAN): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 study. Lancet. 2016;387:679–90.
Barb D, Portillo-Sanchez P, Cusi K. Pharmacological management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism. 2016;65:1183–95.
Ratziu V, Goodman Z, Sanyal A. Current efforts and trends in the treatment of NASH. J Hepatol. 2015;62:S65–75.
Chalasani N, Deeg MA, Crabb DW. Systemic levels of lipid peroxidation and its metabolic and dietary correlates in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:1497–502.
Chalasani N, Gorski JC, Asghar MS, et al. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 activity in nondiabetic patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2003;37:544–50.
Karimian G, Kirschbaum M, Veldhuis ZJ, Bomfati F, Porte RJ, Lisman T. Vitamin E attenuates the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused by partial hepatectomy in mice. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0143121.
Soden JS, Devereaux MW, Haas JE, et al. Subcutaneous vitamin E ameliorates liver injury in an in vivo model of steatocholestasis. Hepatology. 2007;46:485–95.
Sokol RJ, McKim JM Jr, Goff MC, et al. Vitamin E reduces oxidant injury to mitochondria and the hepatotoxicity of taurochenodeoxycholic acid in the rat. Gastroenterology. 1998;114:164–74.
Kim GH, Chung JW, Lee JH, et al. Effect of vitamin E in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with metabolic syndrome: a propensity score-matched cohort study. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2015;21:379–86.
Fukui A, Kawabe N, Hashimoto S, et al. Vitamin E reduces liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Hepatol. 2015;7:2749–56.
Sumida Y, Naito Y, Tanaka S, et al. Long-term (>=2 yr) efficacy of vitamin E for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2013;60:1445–50.
Sanyal AJ, Chalasani N, Kowdley KV, et al. Pioglitazone, vitamin E, or placebo for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1675–85.
Lavine JE, Schwimmer JB, Van Natta ML, et al. Effect of vitamin E or metformin for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: the TONIC randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;305:1659–68.
Bell LN, Wang J, Muralidharan S, et al. Relationship between adipose tissue insulin resistance and liver histology in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a pioglitazone versus vitamin E versus placebo for the treatment of nondiabetic patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis trial follow-up study. Hepatology. 2012;56:1311–8.
Bowman BH, Kurosky A. Haptoglobin: the evolutionary product of duplication, unequal crossing over, and point mutation. Adv Hum Genet. 1982;12(189–261):453–4.
Langlois MR, Delanghe JR. Biological and clinical significance of haptoglobin polymorphism in humans. Clin Chem. 1996;42:1589–600.
Melamed-Frank M, Lache O, Enav BI, et al. Structure-function analysis of the antioxidant properties of haptoglobin. Blood. 2001;98:3693–8.
Bamm VV, Tsemakhovich VA, Shaklai M, Shaklai N. Haptoglobin phenotypes differ in their ability to inhibit heme transfer from hemoglobin to LDL. Biochemistry. 2004;43:3899–906.
Vardi M, Levy AP. Is it time to screen for the haptoglobin genotype to assess the cardiovascular risk profile and vitamin E therapy responsiveness in patients with diabetes? Curr Diab Rep. 2012;12:274–9.
Milman U, Blum S, Shapira C, et al. Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype: a prospective double-blinded clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:341–7.
Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women’s Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;294:56–65.
Blum S, Vardi M, Levy NS, Miller-Lotan R, Levy AP. The effect of vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular risk in diabetic individuals with different haptoglobin phenotypes. Atherosclerosis. 2010;211:25–7.
Orchard TJ, Sun W, Cleary PA, et al. Haptoglobin genotype and the rate of renal function decline in the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study. Diabetes. 2013;62:3218–23.
Costacou T, Ferrell RE, Ellis D, Orchard TJ. Haptoglobin genotype and renal function decline in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2009;58:2904–9.
Koch W, Latz W, Eichinger M, et al. Genotyping of the common haptoglobin Hp 1/2 polymorphism based on PCR. Clin Chem. 2002;48:1377–82.
Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van Natta M, et al. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005;41:1313–21.
Ballestri S, Nascimbeni F, Baldelli E, Marrazzo A, Romagnoli D, Lonardo A. NAFLD as a sexual dimorphic disease: role of gender and reproductive status in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and inherent cardiovascular risk. Adv Ther. 2017;34:1291–326.
Awadallah S, Hamad M. The prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus is haptoglobin phenotype-independent. Cytobios. 2000;101:145–50.
Sun Yongye, Ma Aiguo, Li Yong, Han Xiuxia, Wang Qiuzhen, Liang Hui. Vitamin E supplementation protects erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress in healthy Chinese middle-aged and elderly people. Nutr Res. 2012;32:328–34.