Progress Monitoring Measures for Internalizing Symptoms: A Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed Literature

  • Evan H. DartEmail author
  • Prerna G. Arora
  • Tai A. Collins
  • Beth Doll
Review Paper


A critical component of multi-tiered systems of support is the incorporation of formative assessment, which supports school personnel in making data-based decisions about students’ responsiveness to interventions. Although a variety of assessments exist for monitoring the progress of students’ academic and behavioral functioning, the literature supporting progress monitoring of symptoms related to internalizing disorders, such as anxiety and depression, is less robust. Accordingly, the need for progress monitoring measures for internalizing symptoms for use within a school-based multi-tiered framework has been underscored. Thus, the purpose of this three-stage systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature was to (1) identify assessments that have been used to progress monitor the symptoms of children’ internalizing symptoms; (2) analyze their psychometric properties and basic characteristics; (3) and review their appropriateness for use as progress monitoring measures within a school setting. The results of the review identified 15 unique assessments that have been used to progress monitor internalizing symptoms in children, with eight of those assessments deemed practical for frequent use within a school setting. Implications of the results, limitations of the review, and future directions for research are discussed.


Progress monitoring Internalizing MTSS 



This study was funded by the Society of School Psychology.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


*References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the systematic review

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evan H. Dart
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prerna G. Arora
    • 2
  • Tai A. Collins
    • 3
  • Beth Doll
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Southern MississippiHattiesburgUSA
  2. 2.Pace UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.University of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  4. 4.University of Nebraska – LincolnLincolnUSA

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